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Technical Paper

Modelling the Knocking Combustion of a Large Gas Engine Considering Cyclic Variations and Detailed Reaction Kinetics

The combustion efficiency of large gas engines is limited by knocking combustion. Due to fact that the quality of the fuel gas has a high impact on the self-ignition of the mixture, it is the aim of this work to model the knocking combustion for fuel gases with different composition using detailed chemistry. A cycle-resolved knock simulation of the fast burning cycles was carried out in order to assume realistic temperatures and pressures in the unburned mixture Therefore, an empirical model that predicts the cyclic variations on the basis of turbulent and chemical time scales was derived from measured burn rates and implemented in a 1D simulation model. Based on the simulation of the fast burning engine cycles the self-ignition process of the unburned zone was calculated with a stochastic reactor model and correlated to measurements from the engines test bench. A good agreement of the knock onset could be achieved with this approach.
Journal Article

Modeling Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in 0-D/1-D Simulation by Means of Combustion Model Parameter Perturbations based on Statistics of Cycle-Resolved Data

The presented paper deals with a methodology to model cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) in 0-D/1-D simulation tools. This is achieved by introducing perturbations of combustion model parameters. To enable that, crank angle resolved data of individual cycles (pressure traces) have to be available for a reasonable number of engine cycles. Either experimental data or 3-D CFD results can be applied. In the presented work, experimental data of a single-cylinder research engine were considered while predicted LES 3-D CFD results will be tested in the future. Different engine operating points were selected - both stable ones (low CCV) and unstable ones (high CCV). The proposed methodology consists of two major steps. First, individual cycle data have to be matched with the 0-D/1-D model, i.e., combustion model parameters are varied to achieve the best possible match of pressure traces - an automated optimization approach is applied to achieve that.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Strength Effect of Thread Forming Process in Cast Aluminum

Two thread forming processes, rolling and cutting, were studied for their effects on fatigue in cast aluminum 319-T7. Material was excised from cylinder blocks and tested in rotating-bending fatigue in the form of unnotched and notched specimens. The notched specimens were prepared by either rolling or cutting to replicate threads in production-intent parts. Cut threads exhibited conventional notch behavior for notch sensitive materials. In contrast, plastic deformation induced by rolling created residual compressive stresses in the notch root and significantly improved fatigue strength to the point that most of the rolled specimens broke outside the notch. Fractographic and metallographic investigation showed that cracks at the root of rolled notches were deflected upon initiation. This lengthened their incubation period, which effectively increased fatigue resistance.
Journal Article

Improved Modeling of Near-Wall Heat Transport for Cooling of Electric and Hybrid Powertrain Components by High Prandtl Number Flow

Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations of heat transfer involving wall bounded flows at elevated Prandtl numbers typically suffer from a lack of accuracy and/or increased mesh dependency. This can be often attributed to an improper near-wall turbulence modeling and the deficiency of the wall heat transfer models (based on the so called P-functions) that do not properly account for the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the wall proximity (y+< 5). As the conductive sub-layer gets significantly thinner than the viscous velocity sub-layer (for Pr >1), treatment of the thermal buffer layer gains importance as well. Various hybrid strategies utilize blending functions dependent on the molecular Prandtl number, which do not necessarily provide a smooth transition from the viscous/conductive sub-layer to the logarithmic region.
Technical Paper

Shape Optimization by an Adjoint Solver based on a near-wall Turbulence Model

The aim of this paper is to present the adjoint equations for shape optimization derived from steady incompressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations and an objective functional. These adjoint Navier-Stokes equations have a similar form as the N-S equations, while the source terms and the boundary conditions depend on the chosen objective. Additionally, the gradient of the targeted objective with respect to the design variables is calculated. Based on this, a modification of the geometry is computed to arrive at an improved objective value. In order to find out, whether a more sophisticated approach is needed, the adjoint equations are derived by using two different approaches. The first approach is based on the frozen turbulence assumption and the second approach, which is advanced in this paper, is derived from the near wall k − ζ − f turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Scale-Resolving Simulation of an ‘On-Road’ Overtaking Maneuver Involving Model Vehicles

Aerodynamic properties of a BMW car model taking over a truck model are studied computationally by applying the scale-resolving PANS (Partially-averaged Navier-Stokes) approach. Both vehicles represent down-scaled (1:2.5), geometrically-similar models of realistic vehicle configurations for which on-road measurements have been performed by Schrefl (2008). The operating conditions of the modelled ‘on-road’ overtaking maneuver are determined by applying the dynamic similarity concept in terms of Reynolds number consistency. The simulated vehicle configuration constitutes of a non-moving truck model and a car model moving against the air flow, the velocity of which corresponds to the car velocity.
Technical Paper

The Prospect and Benefits of Using the Partial-Averaged Navier-Stokes Method for Engine Flows

This paper presents calculations of engine flows by using the Partially-Averaged Navier Stokes (PANS) method (Girimaji [1]; [2]). The PANS is a scale-resolving turbulence computational approach designed to resolve large scale fluctuations and model the remainder with appropriate closures. Depending upon the prescribed cut-off length (filter width) the method adjusts seamlessly from the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to the Direct Numerical Solution (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations. The PANS method was successfully used for many applications but mainly on static geometries, e.g. Basara et al. [3]; [4]. This is due to the calculation of the cut-off control parameter which requires that the resolved kinetic energy is known and this is usually obtained by suitably averaging of the resolved field. Such averaging process is expensive and impractical for engines as it would require averaging per cycles.