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Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach for Engine Performance Optimization

State-of-the-art motorcycle engines consist of numerous variable components and require a powerful motor management to meet the growing customer expectations and the legislative requirements (e.g. exhaust and noise emissions, fuel consumption) at the same time. These demands are often competing and raise the level of complexity in calibration. In the racing domain, the optimization requirements are usually higher and test efficiency is crucial. Whilst the number of variables to control is growing, the time to perform an engine optimization remains the same or is even shortened. Therefore, simulation is becoming an essential part of the engine calibration optimization. Considering the special circumstances in racing, involving valuable hardware, as well as extremely short development and calibration iteration loops, only transient testing is possible.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Calibration Techniques

Meeting the particle number (PN) emissions limits in vehicle test sequences needs specific attention on each power variation event occurring in the internal combustion engine (ICE). ICE power variations arise from engine start onwards along the entire test drive. In hybrid systems, there is one further source for transient ICE response: each power shift between E-motor and ICE introduces gas flow variations with subsequent temperature response in the ICE and in the engine aftertreatment system (EAS). This bears consequences for engine out emissions as well as for the EAS efficiency and even for the durability of a catalytic converter. As system calibration engineers must decide on numerous actuator parameters, their decisions, finally, are crucial for meeting legislative limits under the boundary conditions given by the hybrid vehicle’s drive environment.
Journal Article

Real-World Fuel Consumption Measurement as the Base for the Compliance to Future CO2 Regulations

The gap between the officially reported CO2 values and the actual performance of the vehicle on the road is continuously increasing. Numerous studies are showing differences between the official values and the real-world measurements of more than 40% in average, with further increases year by year. The fuel consumption of passenger cars are determined as part of the vehicle certification according to Euro 6 via carbon mass balance using exhaust gas measurement. By introducing the new world harmonized driving cycle (WLTC) in September 2017, which is addressing a more realistic speed profile or traffic conditions, the gap between the certification and road test is expected to be reduced in half. Additionally the EU Commission plans to monitor vehicles more closely. From 2020, devices for recording fuel and energy consumption will become mandatory in all passenger cars and light commercial vehicles, reflecting the average real world CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Increased 2-Wheeler Development Efficiency by Using a New Dedicated Test System Solution

Fuel consumption is the most important contributor to the total cost of ownership for mass produced motorcycles. Therefore, best fuel economy is one main influencing criteria for a decision to purchase motorcycles. Furthermore, increasingly stringent emission legislations limit and additional OBD requirements must be fulfilled. A new combined test approach has been developed that minimizes accuracy losses in the development process which compensates for the variability of driving behavior in the chassis dyno environment. An engine testbed combined with a belt drive transmission enables operation in single engine or in Powerpack (i.e. internal combustion engine including transmission) configuration as well as under steady state or dynamic operating mode. Since the belt drive transmission is integrated in the test rig, realistic inertia situation for the single engine operating test configuration is ensured.
Technical Paper

Generic software architecture for cost efficient powertrain electrification

Hybrid-electric vehicles provide additional functionality compared to conventional vehicles. So-called ‘hybrid’ software functions are required to coordinate the conventional powertrain control and these additional control functions. A key factor to reduce the fuel consumption lies in optimal control of the entire interconnected powertrain. This paper aims to provide a framework for efficient interface definition, connection and coordination of control units for hybrid electric vehicles. Such a framework supports an efficient development of control unit architectures and the distribution of software functions. The generic approach necessitates modular software functions. It defines the distribution of these functions in control units optimized with respect to reuse, interfaces and compatibility with different powertrain topologies and electrification variants, especially also considering compatibility with a conventional powertrain and its electric hybridization.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Noise Investigation of a Bus Rear Axle - Todays Possibilities and Outlook

This paper presents a simulation environment and methodology for noise and vibration analyses of a driven rear axle in a bus application, with particular focus on medium to high frequency range (400 Hz to 3 kHz). The workflow demonstrates structure borne noise and sound radiation analyses. The fully flexible Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) model - serving to cover the actual mechanical excitation mechanisms and the structural domain - includes geometrical contacts of hypoid gear in the central gear and planetary gear integrated at hubs, considering non-linear meshing stiffness. Contribution of aforementioned gear stages, as well as the propeller shaft universal joint at the pinion axle, on overall axle noise levels is investigated by means of sensitivity analysis. Based on the surface velocities computed at the vibrating axle-housing structure the Wave Based Technique (WBT) is employed to solve the airborne noise problem and predict the radiated sound.
Technical Paper

Development of New I3 1.0L Turbocharged DI Gasoline Engine

In recent years, more attentions have been paid to stringent legislations on fuel consumption and emissions. Turbocharged downsized gasoline direct injection (DI) engines are playing an increasing important role in OEM’s powertrain strategies and engine product portfolio. Dongfeng Motor (DFM) has developed a new 1.0 liter 3-cylinder Turbocharged gasoline DI (TGDI) engine (hereinafter referred to as C10TD) to meet the requirements of China 4th stage fuel consumption regulations and the China 6 emission standards. In this paper, the concept of the C10TD engine is explained to meet the powerful performance (torque 190Nm/1500-4500rpm and power 95kW/5500rpm), excellent part-load BSFC and NVH targets to ensure the drivers could enjoy the powerful output in quiet and comfortable environment without concerns about the fuel cost and pollution.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Thermal Management Simulation Method Integrated in the Development Process from Scratch to Prototype

In order to meet current and future emission and CO2 targets, an efficient vehicle thermal management system is one of the key factors in conventional as well as in electrified powertrains. Furthermore the increasing number of vehicle configurations leads to a high variability and degrees of freedom in possible system designs and the control thereof, which can only be handled by a comprehensive tool chain of vehicle system simulation and a generic control system architecture. The required model must comprise all relevant systems of the vehicle (control functionality, cooling system, lubrication system, engine, drive train, HV components etc.). For proper prediction with respect to energy consumption all interactions and interdependencies of those systems have to be taken into consideration, i.e. all energy fluxes (mechanical, hydraulically, electrical, thermal) have to be exchanged among the system boundaries accordingly.
Technical Paper

PMSM Noise - Simulation Measurement Comparison

Growing development of hybrid and fully electrical drives increases demand for accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristic of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emission from PMSM electric machine as a one of the most important noise sources in electric vehicles. Structural and air borne noise is measured on e-machine test rig and used for calibration and validation of the numerical model. The electro-magnetic field in PMSM is simulated using finite volume method. Electro-magnetic forces are applied as excitation to the 3D FE model of e-machine, mounded on test frame. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis including identification of orthotropic characteristic of stator laminated core, assembled together with coil and end winding. Structural vibrations are calculated by modal frequency response analysis and applied as excitation in air borne noise simulation.
Technical Paper

Scale-Resolving Simulation of an ‘On-Road’ Overtaking Maneuver Involving Model Vehicles

Aerodynamic properties of a BMW car model taking over a truck model are studied computationally by applying the scale-resolving PANS (Partially-averaged Navier-Stokes) approach. Both vehicles represent down-scaled (1:2.5), geometrically-similar models of realistic vehicle configurations for which on-road measurements have been performed by Schrefl (2008). The operating conditions of the modelled ‘on-road’ overtaking maneuver are determined by applying the dynamic similarity concept in terms of Reynolds number consistency. The simulated vehicle configuration constitutes of a non-moving truck model and a car model moving against the air flow, the velocity of which corresponds to the car velocity.
Technical Paper

Ash Transport and Deposition, Cake Formation and Segregation-A Modeling Study on the Impact of Ash on Particulate Filter Performance

Non-combustible particles, commonly summarized as ash, influence the lifetime performance of wall flow filters. This study aims to investigate this influence by means of simulation. An existing transient 1D+1D wall flow filter model is extended by dedicated transport balances for soot and ash (1), by a discrete cake model describing changing soot and ash compositions over the cake height (2), by a phenomenological cake filtration model (3), by dedicated cake property models (4) and by a phenomenological model capturing the radial mobility of solids within the cake (5). Results of three different types of simulations are shown. First, the various sub-models are assessed in isolated simulation configurations. The combination of these shall serve as theoretical model validation. Second, isolated loading and passive regeneration simulations are performed.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics Simulation Model for Noise and Vibration Effects in Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain

Over the past 30 years, simulation of the N&V (Noise and Vibration) behaviour of automotive drivelines became an integral part of the powertrain development process. With current and future HEVs (Hybrid-Electrical Vehicles), additional phenomena and effects have entered the scene and need to be taken into account during layout/design as well as optimization phase. Beside effects directly associated with the e-components (namely electric whistle and whine), torque changes caused by activation/deactivation of the e-machine give rise to vibration issues (e.g. driveline shuffle or clonk) as well. This is in particular true for transient operation conditions like boosting and recuperation. Moreover, aspects of starting the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) using the built-in e-machine in conjunction with the dynamic behaviour of torsional decoupling devices become increasingly important. In order to cope with above-mentioned effects a multi-physics simulation approach is required.
Technical Paper

Coupling Node Reduction of a Synchronous Machine Using Multipoint-Constraints

The noise vibration and harshness (NVH) simulation of electric machines becomes increasingly important due to the use of electric machines in vehicles. This paper describes a method to reduce the calculation time and required memory of the finite element NVH simulation of electrical machines. The stator of a synchronous electrical machine is modeled as a two-dimensional problem to reduce investigation effort. The electromagnetic forces acting on the stator are determined by FE-simulation in advance. Since these forces need to be transferred from the electromagnetic model to the structural model, a coupling algorithm is necessary. In order to reduce the number of nodes, which are involved in the coupling between the electromagnetic and structural model, multipoint constraints (MPC) are used to connect several coupling nodes to one new coupling node. For the definition of the new coupling nodes, the acting load is analyzed with a 2D-FFT.
Journal Article

Measures to Reduce Particulate Emissions from Gasoline DI engines

Particulate emission reduction has long been a challenge for diesel engines as the diesel diffusion combustion process can generate high levels of soot which is one of the main constituents of particulate matter. Gasoline engines use a pre-mixed combustion process which produces negligible levels of soot, so particulate emissions have not been an issue for gasoline engines, particularly with modern port fuel injected (PFI) engines which provide excellent mixture quality. Future European and US emissions standards will include more stringent particulate limits for gasoline engines to protect against increases in airborne particulate levels due to the more widespread use of gasoline direct injection (GDI). While GDI engines are typically more efficient than PFI engines, they emit higher particulate levels, but still meet the current particulate standards.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Multi Zone Combustion Model for Analysis and Prediction of CI Engine Combustion and Emissions

The paper describes a universally structured simulation platform which is used for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The models are on a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved basis as commonly used for engine cycle simulations. This platform represents a kind of thermodynamic framework which can be linked to single and multi zone combustion models. It is mainly used as work environment for the development and testing of new models which thereafter are implemented to other codes. One recent development task focused on a multi zone combustion model which corresponds to the approach of Hiroyasu. This model was taken from literature, extended with additional features described in this paper, and implemented into the thermodynamic simulation platform.
Journal Article

Use of a Catalytic Stripper as an Alternative to the Original PMP Measurement Protocol

The Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) developed an exhaust particle number measurement protocol that has been adopted by current light duty vehicle emission regulations in Europe. This includes thermal treatment of the exhaust aerosol to isolate solid particles only and a number counting device with a lower cutpoint of 23 nm to avoid measurement of smaller particles that may affect the repeatability of the measurement. In this paper, we examine a potential alternative to the PMP system, where the thermal treatment is replaced by a catalytic stripper (CS). This offers oxidation and not just evaporation of the volatile components. Alternative sampling systems, either fulfilling the PMP recommendations or utilizing a CS, have been explored in terms of their volatile particle removal efficiency. Tests have been conducted on diesel exhaust, diesel equipped with DPF and gasoline direct injection emissions.
Journal Article

A Miniature Catalytic Stripper for Particles Less Than 23 Nanometers

The European Emissions Stage 5b standard for diesel passenger cars regulates particulate matter to 0.0045 g/km and non-volatile part/km greater than 23 nm size to 6.0x10₁₁ as determined by the PMP procedure that uses a heated evaporation tube to remove semi-volatile material. Measurement artifacts associated with the evaporation tube technique prevents reliable extension of the method to a lower size range. Catalytic stripper (CS) technology removes possible sources of these artifacts by effectively removing all hydrocarbons and sulfuric acid in the gas phase in order to avoid any chemical reactions or re-nucleation that may cause measurement complications. The performance of a miniature CS was evaluated and experimental results showed solid particle penetration was 50% at 10.5 nm. The sulfate storage capacity integrated into the CS enabled it to chemically remove sulfuric acid vapor rather than rely on dilution to prevent nucleation.
Journal Article

NVH of Electric Vehicles with Range Extender

Intensive R&D is currently performed worldwide on hybrid and electric vehicles. For full electric vehicles the driving range is limited by the capacity of currently available batteries. If such a vehicle shall increase its driving range some range extending backup system should be available. Such a Range Extender is a small system of combustion engine and electric generator which produces the required electricity for charging the batteries in time. Since the acoustic response of an electric motor driving the vehicle and of a combustion engine as part of a Range Extender is very different by nature an extensive acoustic tuning of the Range Extender is necessary to meet the requirements of exterior vehicle noise and passenger comfort. This paper describes the NVH (noise, vibration & harshness) development work of a range extender within the AVL approach of an electrically driven passenger car with range extender.
Technical Paper

Cylinder- and Cycle Resolved Particle Formation Evaluation to Support GDI Engine Development for Euro 6 Targets

Combustion of premixed stoichiometric charge is free of soot particle formation. Consequently, the development of direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engines aims at providing premixed charge to avoid or minimize soot formation in order to meet particle emissions targets. Engine development methods not only need precise engine-out particle measurement instrumentation but also sensors and measurement techniques which enable identification of in-cylinder soot formation sources under all relevant engine test conditions. Such identification is made possible by recording flame radiation signals and with analysis of such signals for premixed and diffusion flame signatures. This paper presents measurement techniques and analysis methods under normal engine and vehicle test procedures to minimize sooting combustion modes in transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities of Variant Calibration of Hybrid Vehicles

The automotive industry is racing to introduce some degree of hybridization into their product ranges. Since the term "hybrid vehicle" can cover a wide range of differing technologies and drivetrain topologies, this has led to a plethora of vehicles that call them "hybrid." This poses an interesting challenge for marketers to differentiate these vehicles from the incumbents. However, it is not just the marketers who are faced with challenges, the developers of such hybrid drivetrains are faced with a rise in technical complexity due to the wide range of operating modes hybridization introduces. As propulsive torque is being generated in more than one place in a hybrid vehicle, the transitions from conventional drive to electrically supported drive bring with them complex aspects of multi-dimensional system control. The challenge is to be able to implement hybrid technology in an existing drivetrain, while adapting the existing components as required.