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Journal Article

A ‘Microscopic’ Structural Mechanics FE Model of a Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell for Quasi-Static Load Cases

This study deals with the experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of a lithium-ion pouch cell and its modelling in an explicit finite element simulation code. One can distinguish between ‘macroscopic’ and ‘microscopic’ modelling approaches. In the ‘macroscopic’ approach, one material model approximates the behaviour of multiple inner cell layers. In the ‘microscopic’ approach, which is used in the present study, all layers and their interactions are modelled separately. The cell under study is a pouch-type lithium-ion cell with a liquid electrolyte. With its cell chemistry, design, size and capacity it is usable for automotive applications and can be assembled into traction batteries. One cell sample was fully discharged and disassembled, and its components (anode, cathode, separator and pouch) were examined and measured by electron microscopy. Components were also tensile tested.
Technical Paper

The OBD System Development Database - a Solution for Knowledge Management and Tool Supported Control System Design and Calibration

The correct information about legal demands of the On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) system in a vehicle project is required throughout the entire development process. Usually, the main obstacle in succeeding is to provide the company's expertise of some few experts for all employees who work in OBD related projects. The paper describes the AVL solution for knowledge management and tool supported control system design and calibration: OBD System Development Database. The software enables the user to access the regulatory requirements for a specific application and legislation from past, present and future (proposed rule-making) point of view. Information concerning already available and stored monitoring concepts is linked to the requirements in order to re-use potentially suitable concepts and to enable an efficient knowledge exchange within the company.
Technical Paper

Industrialization of Base Calibration Methods for ECU-functions Exemplary for Air Charge Determination

Today's calibration process for ECU functions is often based on a wide variety of proprietary tools and individual expert knowledge of calibration engineers. Automatic calibration with an industrialized tool chain provides high potential to reduce testbed time, calibration time and project costs. Based on an efficient measurement procedure in combination with an offline calibration methodology the capability is validated, e.g. for calibrating the ECU function “Air Charge Determination” for SI engines. In this article the implementation, in a series production project of a major OEM, is shown. The whole workflow - which can also be applied to other calibration tasks - will be described in detail. Presented here will be how General Motors Corporation (GM) is able to speed up the calibration of the ECU functions, whilst maintaining at least the same quality of calibration as before, by the use of this tool chain.
Journal Article

NVH of Electric Vehicles with Range Extender

Intensive R&D is currently performed worldwide on hybrid and electric vehicles. For full electric vehicles the driving range is limited by the capacity of currently available batteries. If such a vehicle shall increase its driving range some range extending backup system should be available. Such a Range Extender is a small system of combustion engine and electric generator which produces the required electricity for charging the batteries in time. Since the acoustic response of an electric motor driving the vehicle and of a combustion engine as part of a Range Extender is very different by nature an extensive acoustic tuning of the Range Extender is necessary to meet the requirements of exterior vehicle noise and passenger comfort. This paper describes the NVH (noise, vibration & harshness) development work of a range extender within the AVL approach of an electrically driven passenger car with range extender.
Technical Paper

Tool Based Calibration with the OBDmanager

At the moment the documentation of failure inhibition matrices and the fault path management for different controller types and different vehicle projects are mainly maintained manually in individual Excel tables. This is not only time consuming but also gives a high potential for fault liability. In addition there is also no guarantee that the calibration of these failure inhibition matrices and its fault path really works. Conflicting aims between costs, time and fault liability require a new approach for the calibration, documentation and testing of failure inhibition matrices and the complete Diagnostic System Management (DSM) calibration. The standardization and harmonization of the Diagnostic System Management calibration for different calibration projects and derivates is the first step to reduce time and costs. Creating a master calibration for the conjoint fault paths and labels provides a significant reduction of efforts.
Technical Paper

A Cross Domain Co-Simulation Platform for the Efficient Analysis of Mechatronic Systems

Efficient integration of mechanics and microelectronics components is nowadays a must within the automotive industry in order to minimize integration risks and support optimization of the entire system. We propose in this work a cross domain co-simulation platform for the efficient analysis of mechatronic systems. The interfacing of two state-of-the-art simulation platforms provides a direct link between the two domains at an early development stage, thus enabling the validation and optimization of the system already during modeling phase. The proposed cross-domain co-simulation is used within our TEODACS project for the analysis of the FlexRay technology. We illustrate using a drive-by-wire use case how the different architecture choices may influence the system.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Flow and Cavitation Modeling with Coupled 1D-3D AVL Software Tools

The paper is devoted to the coupled 1D-3D modeling technology of injector flow and cavitation in diesel injections systems. The technology is based on the 1D simulation of the injector with the AVL software BOOST-HYDSIM and 3D modeling of the nozzle flow with AVL FIRE. The nozzle mesh with spray holes and certain part of the nozzle chamber is created with the FIRE preprocessor. The border between the 1D and 3D simulation regions can be chosen inside the nozzle chamber at any position along the needle shaft. Actual coupling version of both software tools considers only one-dimensional (longitudinal) needle motion. Forthcoming version already includes the two-dimensional motion of the needle. Furthermore, special models for the needle tip contact with the nozzle seat and needle guide contact with the nozzle wall are developed in HYDSIM. The co-simulation technology is applied for different common rail injectors in several projects.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities of Variant Calibration of Hybrid Vehicles

The automotive industry is racing to introduce some degree of hybridization into their product ranges. Since the term "hybrid vehicle" can cover a wide range of differing technologies and drivetrain topologies, this has led to a plethora of vehicles that call them "hybrid." This poses an interesting challenge for marketers to differentiate these vehicles from the incumbents. However, it is not just the marketers who are faced with challenges, the developers of such hybrid drivetrains are faced with a rise in technical complexity due to the wide range of operating modes hybridization introduces. As propulsive torque is being generated in more than one place in a hybrid vehicle, the transitions from conventional drive to electrically supported drive bring with them complex aspects of multi-dimensional system control. The challenge is to be able to implement hybrid technology in an existing drivetrain, while adapting the existing components as required.
Technical Paper

MiL-Based Calibration and Validation of Diesel-ECU Models Using Emission and Fuel Consumption Prediction during Dynamic Warm-Up Tests (NEDC)

A calibration and validation workflow will be presented in this paper, which utilizes common static global models for fuel consumption, NOx and soot. Due to the applicability for warm-up tests, e. g. New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the models need to predict the temperature influence and will be fitted with measuring data from a conditioned engine test bed. The applied model structure - consisting of a number of global data-based sub-models - is configured especially for the requirements of multi-injection strategies of common rail systems. Additionally common global models for several constant coolant water temperature levels are generated and the workflow tool supports the combination and segmentation of global nominal map with temperature correction maps for seamless and direct ECU setting.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Solutions for Range Extenders - From Concept Considerations to Practical Experiences

For a broad acceptance of electric vehicles, the trade-off between all electric range and battery cost respectively weight represents the most important challenge. The all electric range obtained under real world conditions most often deviates significantly from the nominal value which is measured under idealized conditions. Under extreme conditions - slow traffic and demanding requirements for cabin heating or cooling - the electrical range might become less a question of spatial distance but even more of total operation time. Whereas with conventional powertrain, high flexibility of the total driving range can be obtained without sacrificing cost, with a pure battery vehicle this results in extreme high cost and weight of the energy storage. Therefore the difference between the typical daily driving range (e.g. in Germany 80-90% is below 50 km) and the minimum total range requested by most customers for acceptance of battery vehicles (200- 250 km), becomes essential.
Technical Paper

Concepts for Mechanical Abuse Testing of High-Voltage Batteries

Currently lithium-batteries are the most promising electrical-energy storage technology in fully-electric and hybrid vehicles. A crashworthy battery-design is among the numerous challenges development of electric-vehicles has to face. Besides of safe normal operation, the battery-design shall provide marginal threat to human health and environment in case of mechanical damage. Numerous mechanical abuse-tests were performed to identify load limits and the battery's response to damage. Cost-efficient testing is provided by taking into account that the battery-system's response to abuse might already be observed at a lower integration-level, not requiring testing of the entire pack. The most feasible tests and configurations were compiled and discussed. Adaptions of and additions to existing requirements and test-procedures as defined in standards are pointed out. Critical conditions that can occur during and after testing set new requirements to labs and test-rigs.
Technical Paper

A Versatile Approach for an ISO26262 Compliant Hardware-Software Interface Definition with Model-Based Development

Increasing demands for safety, security, and certifiability of embedded automotive systems require additional development effort to generate the required evidences that the developed system can be trusted for the application and environment it is intended for. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. The challenge in this context is to provide evidence of consistency, correctness, and completeness of system specifications over different work-products. One of these required work-products is the hardware-software interface (HSI) definition. This work-product is especially important since it defines the interfaces between different technologies. Model-based development (MBD) is a promising approach to support the description of the system under development in a more structured way, thus improving resulting consistency.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities in Variant Calibration of Hybrid Vehicles

The automotive industry is racing to introduce some degree of hybridization into their product ranges. Since the term “hybrid vehicle” can cover a wide range of differing technologies and drivetrain topologies, this has led to a large amount of vehicles that call themselves “hybrid”. This poses an interesting challenge for marketers to differentiate these vehicles from the incumbents. However, it is not just the marketers who are faced with challenges, the developers of such hybrid drivetrains are faced with a rise in technical complexity due to the wide range of operating modes hybridization introduces. As propulsive torque is being generated in more than one place in a hybrid vehicle, the transitions from conventional drive to electrically supported drive bring with them complex aspects of multi-dimensional system control. The challenge is to be able to implement hybrid technology in an existing drivetrain, while adapting the existing components as required.
Technical Paper

Automated EMS Calibration using Objective Driveability Assessment and Computer Aided Optimization Methods

Future demands regarding emissions, fuel consumption and driveability lead to complex engine and power train control systems. The calibration of the increasing number of free parameters in the ECU's contradicts the demand for reduced time in the power train development cycle. This paper will focus on the automatic, unmanned closed loop optimization of driveability quality on a high dynamic engine test bed. The collaboration of three advanced methods will be presented: Objective real time driveability assessment, to predict the expected feelings of the buyers of the car Automatic computer assisted variation of ECU parameters on the basis of statistical methods like design of experiments (DoE). Thus data are measured in an automated process allowing an optimization based on models (e.g. neural networks).
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sound Engineering by Modifying Intake / Exhaust Orifice Noise Using Simulation Software

Apart of other aspects, the interior sound of a passenger car brand has to meet customer expectations. For optimizing the sound of a passenger car, target sounds have first to be established via the operating range of the vehicle. For an effective sound engineering approach an objective description and evaluation of vehicle interior sound is beneficial. Such an objective description guarantees the effective and reproducible implementation of the required brand sound in the vehicle development process. In such a process it is necessary to reduce on the one hand annoying undesired noise aspects and to create on the other hand the relevant and necessary noise parameters to meet the target sounds head on.
Technical Paper

Single Cylinder 25kW Range Extender: Development for Lowest Vibrations and Compact Design Based on Existing Production Parts

The automotive trend towards increased levels of electrification is showing a clear direction for hybrid technologies. Nowadays Mild- and plug-in-hybrids open a very wide area of future developments whereas battery electric vehicles (BEV) are still evident but still perceived as niche products with limited production volumes. Nevertheless, major OEMs are working on these kinds of vehicles and have also brought such EV concepts into series production. All of these designs show a clear trend that, beside the topic of electric traction motor and energy storage systems, the internal combustion engine (ICE) is also coming into focus again. In many of these vehicles the range extender (RE) unit is foreseen as an emergency unit to recharge the batteries if the state of charge (SOC) is too low. One of the major advantages of a BEV over other designs is the very good acoustic behavior, so the NVH performance becomes the most challenging topic for RE development.
Technical Paper

A Software Tool for Noise Quality and Brand Sound Development

For noise quality and brand sound design of passenger cars a unique software tool is currently used by our clients world-wide to evaluate and optimise the interior noise quality and brand sound aspects of passenger cars on an objective basis. The software tools AVL-VOICE and AVL-COMFORT are designed for the objective analysis of interior noise quality, for benchmarking, for the definition of noise quality targets and most important for effective vehicle sound engineering. With this tool, the target orientated implementation of the required interior noise quality or brand sound by predictable hardware modifications into passenger cars - for tailor made joy of driving - becomes feasible. The use of this tools is drastically reducing vehicle evaluation time and sound engineering effort when compared with traditional jury subjective evaluation methods and standard acoustic NVH optimisation procedures.
Technical Paper

Automatic ECU-Calibration - An Alternative to Conventional Methods

Due to increasing complexity of engine electronic systems, there is a demand to handle the often more than 10,000 calibration data automatically. Establishing optimized start of injection and EGR tables of a TC DI Diesel engine by conventional methods takes about two weeks of intensive calibration work. By automatic map calibration, this task can be handled in less than 20 hours automatically, with no staff required during optimization. The benefits of automatic calibration therefore are reduced costs and faster response to any changes in parameters, even with complex multidimensional engine calibration problems. The paper describes the optimization method as well as the experimental work on the test stand that produces the results.
Technical Paper

Dual Mode VCS Variable Compression System - System Integration and Vehicle Requirements

Future legislation scenarios as well as stringent CO2 targets, in particular under real driving conditions, will require the introduction of new and additional powertrain technologies. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). There is clearly a competition of new and different ICE-Technologies [1] including VCR. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The implementation of Miller or Atkinson cycles is an essential criterion for increased geometric Compression Ratio (CR). The DUAL MODE Variable Compression System (VCS)TM enables a 2-stage variation of the connecting rod length and thus of the compression ratio (CR).
Journal Article

Solutions for Emission Robustness of BS VI Phase II Respecting the Market Specific Requirements

Most stringent emission legislations have been implemented in all major markets to improve air quality across the past years. This effects the product cost of the vehicles which is considered being critical and needs to be minimized. India suffers from bad air quality and countermeasures have been defined. One being the implementation of similar emission standards than EU VI. By doing so, India takes a large step going from the currently effective BS IV directly to BS VI. Emission reduction is currently mainly handled by the usage of EGR, thus no engine aftertreatment system has been applied. BS VI will require an aftertreatment (EAS) concept with several catalysts and corresponding control system. India is a very cost sensitive market and a carry over of solutions from the EU needs to be evaluated carefully and new approaches need to be found.