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Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

Measuring Automotive Exhaust Particles Down to 10 nm

2020-09-15
2020-01-2209
The latest generation of internal combustion engines may emit significant levels of sub-23 nm particles. The main objective of the Horizon 2020 “DownToTen” project was to develop a robust methodology and provide policy recommendations towards the particle number (PN) emissions measurements in the sub-23 nm region. In order to achieve this target, a new portable exhaust particle sampling system (PEPS) was developed, being capable of measuring exhaust particles down to at least 10 nm under real-world conditions. The main design target was to build a system that is compatible with current PMP requirements and is characterized by minimized losses in the sub-23 nm region, high robustness against artefacts and high flexibility in terms of different PN modes investigation, i.e. non-volatile, volatile and secondary particles.
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