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Technical Paper

Comparison of Particle Number Measurements from the Full Dilution Tunnel, the Tailpipe and Two Partial Flow Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1299
The regulation of particle number (PN) has been introduced in the Euro 5/6 light-duty vehicle legislation, as a result of the light duty inter-laboratory exercise of the Particle Measurement Program (PMP). The heavy-duty inter-laboratory exercise investigates whether the same or a similar procedure can be applied to the heavy-duty regulation. In the heavy-duty exercise two "golden" PN systems sample simultaneously; the first from the full dilution tunnel and the second from the partial flow system. One of the targets of the exercise is to compare the PN results from the two systems. In this study we follow a different approach: We use a PMP compliant system at different positions (full flow, partial flow and tailpipe) and we compare its emissions with a "reference" system always sampling from the full flow dilution tunnel.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of Particulate Mass and Number Measurement with Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) for In-Use Testing

2011-09-11
2011-24-0199
Different particulate mass (PM) portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) were evaluated in the lab with three heavy-duty diesel engines which cover a wide range of particle emission levels. For the two engines without Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) the proportional partial flow dilution systems SPC-472, OBS-TRPM, and micro-PSS measured 15% lower PM than the full dilution tunnel (CVS). The micro soot sensor (MSS), which measures soot in real time, measured 35% lower. For the DPF-equipped engine, where the emissions were in the order of 2 mg/kWh, the systems had differences from the CVS higher than 50%. For on-board testing a real-time sensor is necessary to convert the gravimetric (filter)-based PM to second-by-second mass emissions. The detection limit of the sensor, the particle property it measures (e.g., number, surface area or mass, volatiles or non-volatiles) and its calibration affect the estimated real-time mass emissions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Measurement with Partial Flow Sampling: Systems A New Probe and Tunnel Design that Correlates with Full Flow Tunnels

2002-03-04
2002-01-0054
Partial flow sampling methods in emissions testing are interesting and preferred because of their lower cost, smaller size and applicability to engines of all sizes. However the agreement of the results obtained with instruments based on this method to those obtained with the traditional, large tunnel full flow sampling systems needs to be achieved, and the factors of construction that influence this agreement must be understood. These issues have received more attention lately in connection with ISO and WHDC standardization efforts underway to achieve a world-wide harmony in the sampling methods for heavy duty diesel engines, and with the introduction of similar Bag-minidiluter techniques into light duty SULEV gaseous pollutant measurement. This paper presents the theory and practice of a partial flow probe and tunnel design that addresses and minimizes the undesirable effects of the necessary differences between the two sampling methods.
Technical Paper

A New Device for Transient Measurement of Ultralow Soot Emissions

2004-11-16
2004-01-3267
Future legislation, like EURO IV and EURO V or the US 2007 HD regulation will have massive reduction of particulate emission limits. For this beside improvement of engine combustion also exhaust aftertreatment systems are under investigation, like Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), or Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of Nitrogen Oxides. For all those tasks transient soot emission monitoring is one of the key features. To meet this demand a new device for the on-line measurement of soot emitted by combustion engines has been developed. Based on the photoacoustic principle, which has been optimized for automotive applications and easy use in test cells, the instrument shows a sensitivity of 5μg/m3, which is lower than current particulate immission standards in ambient air, and a time resolution of 1 sec. In the paper first the principles of measurement are shown, and then the specifications and results from measurements of very low soot concentration in the exhaust gas are presented.
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