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Technical Paper

Integrated Cavitating Injector Flow and Spray Propagation Simulation in DI Gasoline Engine

A methodology to simulate the injection process in the internal combustion (IC) engines by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented. Entire sequence of the gasoline injection processes, starting with a transient injector-flow simulation and continuing with break-up and spray propagation using AVL FIRE, is shown. In the first part, a multidimensional model for the cavitating flow in a multi-hole gasoline injector is presented, based on the two-fluid model and capable to simulate N-phase systems. Considered fluid components are liquid fuel and fuel vapor. Momentum and mass exchange between the two phases are accounted for. In the second part of the work, the link between nozzle flow and spray formation is established performing simulations including the break-up model. This calculates the initial conditions for the spray droplets, e.g., size and velocity, based on the local turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), velocity and phase distribution at the nozzle orifice.
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Fuel Spray and Mixture Formation from Nozzle Internal Flow Calculation

A series calculation methodology from the injector nozzle internal flow to the in-cylinder fuel spray and mixture formation in a diesel engine was developed. The present method was applied to a valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle with the recent common rail injector system. The nozzle internal flow calculation using an Eulerian three-fluid model and a cavitation model was performed. The needle valve movement during the injection period was taken into account in this calculation. Inside the nozzle hole, cavitation appears at the nozzle hole inlet edge, and the cavitation region separates into two regions due to a secondary flow in the cross section, and it is distributed to the nozzle exit. Unsteady change of the secondary flow caused by needle movement affects the cavitation distribution in the nozzle hole, and the spread angle of the velocity vector at the nozzle exit.