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Technical Paper

Simulation of Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Systems - Thermal Behavior During Different Operating Conditions

The introduction of more stringent standards for engine emissions requires continuous improvement of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. Modern systems require a combined design and application of different aftertreatment devices. Computer simulation helps to investigate the complexity of different system layouts. This study presents an overall aftertreatment modeling framework comprising dedicated models for pipes, oxidation catalysts, wall flow particulate filters and selective catalytic converters. The model equations of all components are discussed. The individual behavior of all components is compared to experimental data. With these well calibrated models a simulation study on a DOC-DPF-SCR exhaust system is performed. The impact of pipe wall insulation on the overall NOx conversion performance is investigated during four different engine operating conditions taken from a heavy-duty drive cycle.
Technical Paper

New Physical and Chemical Models for the CFD Simulation of Exhaust Gas Lines: A Generic Approach

In the near future the effort on the development of exhaust gas treatment systems must be increased to meet the stringent emission requirements. If the relevant physical and chemical models are available, the numerical simulation is an important tool for the design of these systems. This work presents a CFD model that allows to cover the full range of applications in this area. After a detailed presentation of the theoretical background and the modeling strategies results for the simulation of a close-coupled catalyst are shown. The presented model is also applied to the oxidation of nitrogen oxides, to a diesel particle filter and a fuel-cell reformer catalyst.
Technical Paper

Current Findings in Measurement Technology and Measurement Methodology for RDE and Fuel Consumption for Two-Wheeler-Applications

Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1]. Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Results, Assessment and Legislative Relevance of RDE and Fuel Consumption Measurements of Two-Wheeler-Applications

The reduction of environmentally harmful gases and the ambitions to reduce the exploitation of fossil resources lead to stricter legislation for all mobile sources. Legislative development significantly affected improvements in emissions and fuel consumptions over the last years, mainly measured under laboratory conditions. But real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and it is already well known that these values considerably differ from officially published figures [1]. There are regulated emissions by the European Commission by means of real driving scenarios for passenger cars. A methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is therefore well approved for automotive applications but was not adapted for two-wheeler-applications yet [2]. Hence measurements have been performed on-road and on chassis dynamometer for motorcycles with the state of the art RDE measurement equipment to be prepared for possible future legislation.