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Technical Paper

HD Base Engine Development to Meet Future Emission and Power Density Challenges of a DDI™ Engine

2007-10-30
2007-01-4225
This paper describes development challenges for Heavy-Duty (HD) on-highway Diesel Direct Injection (DDI™) engines to meet the extremely advanced US-EPA 2010 (later named US 2010) emission limits while further increasing power density in combination with competitive engine efficiency. It discusses technologies and solutions for lowest engine-out emissions in combination with most competitive fuel consumption values and excellent dynamic behavior. To achieve these challenging targets, base engine hardware requirements are described. In detail the development of EGR systems, especially the challenges of running high EGR rates over the whole engine speed range also at high load, the dynamic EGR control for transient engine operation to achieve lowest NOx emissions at the smoke limit with excellent load response is discussed. Also the effect of the turbo-machinery on power density and transient engine behavior is shown.
Technical Paper

Overview of the European “Particulates” Project on the Characterization of Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Vehicles: Results for Heavy Duty Engines

2004-06-08
2004-01-1986
This paper presents an overview of the results on heavy duty engines collected in the “PARTICULATES” project, which aimed at the characterization of exhaust particle emissions from road vehicles. The same exhaust gas sampling and measurement system as employed for the measurements on light duty vehicles [1] was used. Measurements were made in three labs to evaluate a wide range of particulate properties with a range of heavy duty engines and fuels. The measured properties included particle number, with focus separately on nucleation mode and solid particles, particle active surface and total mass. The sample consisted of 10 engines, ranging from Euro-I to prototype Euro-V technologies. The same core diesel fuels were used as in the light duty programme, mainly differentiated with respect to their sulphur content. Additional fuels were tested by some partners to extend the knowledge base.
Technical Paper

Can the Technology for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines be Common for Future Emission Regulations in USA, Japan and Europe?

2003-03-03
2003-01-0344
Exhaust emission legislation world-wide have a common trend towards very low limits, measured for compliance in transient cycles specific for the United States, Japan and Europe. The emission development strategy is focussing on lowest engine-out emissions to require a minimum of exhaust gas aftertreatment. The base engine concept is described and test results, complying with Euro 4, are shown. The emission reduction development for future regulations requires exhaust gas aftertreatment, test results are shown for US 2007, JNLTR and Euro 5. With exhaust gas aftertreatment, discussed in the appendix, the engine development is faced with a big challenge to ensure the minimum exhaust gas temperature required for their proper function.
Technical Paper

The Clean Heavy Duty Diesel Engine of the Future: Strategies for Emission Compliance

2001-11-01
2001-28-0045
The internal combustion engines, and the heavy duty truck diesel engines in particular, are facing a severe challenge to cope with the upcoming stringent emission legislation world-wide. To comply with these low limits, engine internal measures must be complemented with exhaust gas aftertreatment systems with sophisticated electronic control. A reduction of NOx and particulate emission of more than 90% is required. Various strategies to comply with Euro 4, 5 and US 2007 are discussed, also in view of engine performance, fuel economy and cooling system load. Recommendations are given for the most suitable approach to comply also in future with emission legislation in Europe and the United States.
Technical Paper

Impact of Future Exhaust Gas Emission Legislation on the Heavy Duty Truck Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0186
Emission standards as proposed in Europe and the United States for heavy duty diesel engines will require a NOx and particulate reduction of more than 90%. This cannot be achieved by internal engine measures alone. Aftertreatment systems, for either one or both emission components, plus sophisticated electronic control strategies will be required. Various strategies to comply with EU 4, 5 and US 2007 are discussed, also showing their impact on engine performance. For typical 1 and 2 liter per cylinder engines, emission reduction concepts are assessed to identify the most suitable technology for major worldwide markets. The assessment is based on thermodynamic studies, test-bed results and estimates on cost and infrastructure implications.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer to the Combustion Chamber and Port Walls of IC Engines - Measurement and Prediction

2000-03-06
2000-01-0568
This paper summarizes the results of several investigations on in-cylinder heat transfer during high-pressure and gas exchange phases as well as heat transfer in the inlet and outlet ports for a number of different engine types (DI Diesel, SI and gaseous fueled engine). The paper contains a comparision of simulation results and experimental data derived from heat flux measurements. Numerical results were obtained from zero-, one- and three-dimensional simulation methods. Time and spatially resolved heat fluxes were measured applying the surface temperature method and special heat flux sensors. The paper also includes an assessment of different sensor types with respect to accuracy and applicability.
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