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Technical Paper

Accuracy of Particle Number Measurements from Partial Flow Dilution Systems

The measurement of the particle number (PN) concentration of non-volatile particles ≻23 nm was introduced in the light-duty vehicles regulation; the heavy-duty regulation followed. Based on the findings of the Particle Measurement Program (PMP), heavy-duty inter-laboratory exercise, the PN concentration measurement can be conducted either from the full dilution tunnel with constant volume sampling (CVS) or from the partial flow dilution system (PFDS). However, there are no other studies that investigate whether the PN results from the two systems are equivalent. In addition, even the PMP study never investigated the uncertainty that is introduced at the final result from the extraction of a flow by a PN system from the PFDS. In this work we investigate the uncertainty for the three possible cases, i.e., considering a constant extracted flow from the PFDS, sending a signal with 1 Hz frequency to the PFDS, or feeding back the extracted flow to the PFDS.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of Particulate Mass and Number Measurement with Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) for In-Use Testing

Different particulate mass (PM) portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) were evaluated in the lab with three heavy-duty diesel engines which cover a wide range of particle emission levels. For the two engines without Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) the proportional partial flow dilution systems SPC-472, OBS-TRPM, and micro-PSS measured 15% lower PM than the full dilution tunnel (CVS). The micro soot sensor (MSS), which measures soot in real time, measured 35% lower. For the DPF-equipped engine, where the emissions were in the order of 2 mg/kWh, the systems had differences from the CVS higher than 50%. For on-board testing a real-time sensor is necessary to convert the gravimetric (filter)-based PM to second-by-second mass emissions. The detection limit of the sensor, the particle property it measures (e.g., number, surface area or mass, volatiles or non-volatiles) and its calibration affect the estimated real-time mass emissions.
Journal Article

Overview of Soot Emission Measurements Instrumentation: From Smoke and Filter Mass to Particle Number

Particulate emissions cause adverse health effects and for this reason they are regulated since the 80s. Vehicle regulations cover particulate emission measurements of a model before its sale, known as type approval or homologation. For heavy-duty engines the emissions are measured on an engine dynamometer with steady state points and transient cycles. For light-duty vehicles (i.e. the full power train) the particulate emissions are assessed on a chassis dynamometer. The measurement of particulate emissions is conducted either by diluting the whole exhaust in a dilution tunnel with constant volume sampling or by extracting a small proportional part of the exhaust gas and diluting it. Particulate emissions are measured by passing part of the diluted exhaust aerosol through a filter paper. The increase of the weight of the filter is used to calculate the particulate matter mass (PM) emissions.
Journal Article

Sampling of Non-Volatile Vehicle Exhaust Particles: A Simplified Guide

Recently, a particle number (PN) limit was introduced in the European light-duty vehicles legislation. The legislation requires measurement of PN, and particulate mass (PM), from the full dilution tunnel with constant volume sampling (CVS). Furthermore, PN measurements will be introduced in the next stage of the European Heavy-Duty regulation. Heavy-duty engine certification can be done either from the CVS or from a partial flow dilution system (PFDS). For research and development purposes, though, measurements are often conducted from the raw exhaust, thereby avoiding the high installation costs of CVS and PFDS. Although for legislative measurements requirements exist regarding sampling and transport of the aerosol sample, such requirements do not necessarily apply for raw exhaust measurements. Thus, measurement differences are often observed depending on where in the experimental set up sampling occurs.
Technical Paper

A New Device for Transient Measurement of Ultralow Soot Emissions

Future legislation, like EURO IV and EURO V or the US 2007 HD regulation will have massive reduction of particulate emission limits. For this beside improvement of engine combustion also exhaust aftertreatment systems are under investigation, like Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), or Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of Nitrogen Oxides. For all those tasks transient soot emission monitoring is one of the key features. To meet this demand a new device for the on-line measurement of soot emitted by combustion engines has been developed. Based on the photoacoustic principle, which has been optimized for automotive applications and easy use in test cells, the instrument shows a sensitivity of 5μg/m3, which is lower than current particulate immission standards in ambient air, and a time resolution of 1 sec. In the paper first the principles of measurement are shown, and then the specifications and results from measurements of very low soot concentration in the exhaust gas are presented.
Technical Paper

A Photoacoustic Sensor System for Time Resolved Quantification of Diesel Soot Emissions

The reduction of particulate emissions limits requires new tools for the tuning of engines and exhaust aftertreatment systems. Time-resolved monitoring of low soot emissions is a key feature for such developments. The paper describes an improved photoacoustic soot sensor, and presents its applications for the characterization of transient exhaust soot emissions before and after Diesel emission after-treatment systems. The detection limit of the unit is around 5 μg/m3 soot, which is two orders of magnitude better than conventional time-resolved transmission measurement. Additionally, a wide dynamic range of four orders of magnitude can be achieved without range switching. The photoacoustic signal is proportional to the soot mass, no significant cross-sensitivities to gaseous absorbers were detected.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Measurement with Partial Flow Sampling: Systems A New Probe and Tunnel Design that Correlates with Full Flow Tunnels

Partial flow sampling methods in emissions testing are interesting and preferred because of their lower cost, smaller size and applicability to engines of all sizes. However the agreement of the results obtained with instruments based on this method to those obtained with the traditional, large tunnel full flow sampling systems needs to be achieved, and the factors of construction that influence this agreement must be understood. These issues have received more attention lately in connection with ISO and WHDC standardization efforts underway to achieve a world-wide harmony in the sampling methods for heavy duty diesel engines, and with the introduction of similar Bag-minidiluter techniques into light duty SULEV gaseous pollutant measurement. This paper presents the theory and practice of a partial flow probe and tunnel design that addresses and minimizes the undesirable effects of the necessary differences between the two sampling methods.