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Journal Article

Blowdown Interference on a V8 Twin-Turbocharged Engine

The exhaust blowdown pulse from each cylinder of a multi-cylinder engine propagates through the exhaust manifold and can affect the in-cylinder pressure of other cylinders which have open exhaust valves. Depending on the firing interval between cylinders connected to the same exhaust manifold, this blowdown interference can affect the exhaust stroke pumping work and the exhaust pressure during overlap, which in turn affects the residual fraction in those cylinders. These blowdown interference effects are much greater for a turbocharged engine than for one which is naturally aspirated because the volume of the exhaust manifolds is minimized to improve turbocharger transient response and because the turbines restrict the flow out of the manifolds. The uneven firing order (intervals of 90°-180°-270°-180°) on each bank of a 90° V8 engine causes the blowdown interference effects to vary dramatically between cylinders.
Technical Paper

LES Simulation of Flame Propagation in a Direct-Injection SI-Engine to Identify the Causes of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Variations

A Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) approach is applied to the calculation of multiple SI-engine cycles in order to study the causes of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. The single-cylinder research engine adopted in the present study is equipped with direct fuel-injection and variable valve timing for both the intake and exhaust side. Operating conditions representing cases with considerably different scatter of the in-cylinder pressure traces are selected to investigate the causes of the cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. In the simulation the engine is represented by a coupled 1D/3D-CFD model, with the combustion chamber and the intake/exhaust ports modeled in 3D-CFD, and the intake/exhaust pipework set-up adopting a 1D-CFD approach. The adopted LES flow model is based upon the well-established Smagorinsky approach. Simulation of the fuel spray propagation process is based upon the discrete droplet model.
Journal Article

Computational Study of the Aerodynamics of a Realistic Car Model by Means of RANS and Hybrid RANS/LES Approaches

The aerodynamic properties of a BMW car model, representing a 40%-scaled model of a relevant car configuration, are studied computationally by means of the Unsteady RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) and Hybrid RANS/LES (Large-Eddy Simulation) approaches. The reference database (geometry, operating parameters and surface pressure distribution) are adopted from an experimental investigation carried out in the wind tunnel of the BMW Group in Munich (Schrefl, 2008). The present computational study focuses on validation of some recently developed turbulence models for unsteady flow computations in conjunction with the universal wall treatment combining integration up to the wall and high Reynolds number wall functions in such complex flow situations. The turbulence model adopted in both Unsteady RANS and PANS (Partially-Averaged Navier Stokes) frameworks is the four-equation ζ − f formulation of Hanjalic et al. (2004) based on the Elliptic Relaxation Concept (Durbin, 1991).
Technical Paper

CAE Process for Developing Cylinder Head Design Including Statistical Correlation and Shape Optimization

Design of cylinder heads involves complex constraints that must satisfy thermal, strength, performance, and manufacturing requirements which present a great challenge for successful development. During development of a new highly loaded cylinder head, CAE methods predicted unacceptable fatigue safety factors for the initial prototype design. Hydropulsator component testing was undertaken and the results were correlated with the analysis predictions using a statistical method to calculate failure probability. Shape optimization was undertaken to improve high cycle fatigue safety in vulnerable regions of the cylinder head water jacket for the subsequent design release. The optimization process provided more efficient design guidance than previously discovered through a traditional iterative approach. Follow-on investigations examined other shape optimization software for fatigue improvement in the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis for In - Vehicle Application

Traditional power train development work is concentrated mainly on test bed and on chassis dyno. Though we can simulate a lot of real world conditions on testbed and chassis dyno today, on road application work willis gaining more attention. This means that strategies and tools for invehicle testing under real world conditions are becoming more important. Emission, performance, fuel economy, combustion noise and driving comfort are linked to combustion quality, i.e. quality of fuel mixture preparation and flame propagation. The known testing and research equipment is only partly or not at all applicable for in-vehicle development work. New tools for on the road testing are required. Following, a general view on in-vehicle power train testing will be given. Additionally, new ways to investigate cylinder and cycle specific soot formation in GDI engines with fiber optic tools will be presented.
Technical Paper

Multi-Component Modeling of Diesel Fuel for Injection and Combustion Simulation

Accurate simulation tools are needed for rapid and cost effective engine development in order to meet ever tighter pollutant regulations for future internal combustion engines. The formation of pollutants such as soot and NOx in Diesel engines is strongly influenced by local concentration of the reactants and local temperature in the combustion chamber. Therefore it is of great importance to model accurately the physics of the injection process, combustion and emission formation. It is common practice to approximate Diesel fuel as a single compound fuel for the simulation of the injection and combustion process. This is in many cases sufficient to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder pressure and heat release in the combustion chamber. The prediction of soot and NOx formation depends however on locally component resolved quantities related to the fuel liquid and gas phase as well as local temperature.
Journal Article

Compact Engine Architecture for Best Fuel Efficiency and High Performance - Challenge or Contradiction

The world of automotive engineering shows a clear direction for upcoming development trends. Stringent fleet average fuel consumption targets and CO2 penalties as well as rising fuel prices and the consumer demand to lower operating costs increases the engineering efforts to optimize fuel economy. Passenger car engines have the benefit of higher degree of technology which can be utilized to reach the challenging targets. Variable valve timing, downsizing and turbo charging, direct gasoline injection, highly sophisticated operating strategies and even more electrification are already common technologies in the automotive industry but can not be directly carried over into a motorcycle application. The major differences like very small packaging space, higher rated speeds, higher power density in combination with lower production numbers and product costs do not allow implementation such high of degree of advanced technology into small-engine applications.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations and Computations of Unsteady Flow Past a Real Car Using a Robust Elliptic Relaxation Closure with a Universal Wall Treatment

In the present work we investigated experimentally and computationally the unsteady flow around a BMW car model including wheels*. This simulation yields mean flow and turbulence fields, enabling the study aerodynamic coefficients (drag and lift coefficients, three-dimensional/spatial wall-pressure distribution) as well as some unsteady flow phenomena in the car wake (analysis of the vortex shedding frequency). Comparisons with experimental findings are presented. The computational approach used is based on solving the complete transient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (TRANS) equations. Special attention is devoted to turbulence modelling and the near-wall treatment of turbulence. The flow calculations were performed using a robust, eddy-viscosity-based ζ - ƒ turbulence model in the framework of the elliptic relaxation concept and in conjunction with the universal wall treatment, combining integration up to the wall and wall functions.
Journal Article

Three-Way Catalyst Light-off During the NEDC Test Cycle: Fully Coupled 0D/1D Simulation of Gasoline Combustion, Pollutant Formation and Aftertreatment Systems

The introduction of more stringent standards for engine emissions requires a steady development of engine control strategies in combination with efforts to optimize in-cylinder combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment. With the goal of optimizing the overall emission performance this study presents the comprehensive simulation approach of a virtual vehicle model. A well established 1D gas dynamics and engine simulation model is extended by four key features. These are models for combustion and pollutant production in the cylinder, a model for the conversion of pollutants in a catalyst and a model for the effect of manifold wall wetting and fuel evaporation. The general species transport feature is linking these model together as it allows to transport an arbitrary number of chemical species in the entire system. Finally this highly detailed engine model is integrated into a vehicle model.
Technical Paper

The Challenge of Precise Characterizing the Specific Large-Span Flows in Urea Dosing Systems for NOx Reduction

The reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines using a urea water solution is gaining more and more importance. While maintaining the future exhaust gas emission regulations, like the Euro 6 for passenger cars and the Euro 5 for commercial vehicles, urea dosing allows the engine management to be modified to improve fuel economy as well. The system manufacturer Robert Bosch has started early to develop the necessary dosing systems for the urea water solution. More than 300.000 Units have been delivered in 2007 for heavy duty applications. Typical dosing quantities for those systems are in the range of 0.01 l/h for passenger car systems and up to 10 l/h for commercial vehicles. During the first years of development and application of urea dosing systems, instantaneous flow measuring devices were used, which were not operating fully satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Designing Single-Purpose or Multi-Purpose Engines for On-Road and Non-Road Use - A Platform Approach

The paper gives an overview of the partially extremely complex problem when looking into commonalities and differences of the three main application areas of engines and powertrains - automotive, agricultural tractors, and industrial engines, the last being predominantly but not exclusively focused on construction equipment. The modern “platform” approach has been used in the automotive world to a large extent and the learned experiences may be of interest for the agricultural tractors and/or the construction equipment manufacturers. On the other hand the truck engine engineers and manufacturers will learn more about the special requirements of the tractor and the industrial engines fields, and thus influence concepts and development procedures and also the production of the automotive engines which in many cases serve as the basis for derivate engines.
Technical Paper

Linear Acoustic Exhaust System Simulation Using Source Data from Non Linear Simulation

Both linear (frequency domain) and non-linear (time domain) prediction codes are used for the simulation of duct acoustics in exhaust systems. Each approach has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. One disadvantage of the linear method is that information about the engine as an acoustic source is needed in order to calculate the insertion loss of mufflers or the level of radiated sound. The source model used in the low frequency plane wave range is the linear time invariant 1-port model. This source characterization data is usually obtained from experimental tests where multi-load methods and especially the two-load method are most commonly used. These measurements are time consuming and expensive. However, this data can also be extracted from an existing 1-D non-linear CFD code describing the engine gas exchange process.
Technical Paper

Thermal Mechanical Fatigue Simulation of Cast iron Cylinder Heads

The requirement for increased power and reduced emission and fuel consumption levels for diesel engines has created very stringent demands on the cylinder head design. In current engine development programs it is often observed that the limiting design factor is given by the thermal mechanical fatigue strength of the cylinder head. Design iterations resulting from durability testing are often necessary due to the lack of adequate simulation techniques for prediction thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) failure. A complete lifetime simulation process is presented in this paper with emphasis on a newly developed material model for describing the constitutive behavior of cast iron (i.e. gray cast iron and compacted graphite iron) under thermal cycling. The material model formulation is based on a continuum-damage-mechanics (CDM) approach in order to account for the tension / compression anomaly of cast iron.
Technical Paper

CSI - Controlled Auto Ignition - the Best Solution for the Fuel Consumption - Versus Emission Trade-Off?

In recent years several new gasoline engine technologies were introduced in order to reduce fuel consumption. Controlled autoignition seems to be an alternative to stratified part load operation, which is handicapped due to it's lean aftertreatment system for world wide application. The principal advantages of controlled auto ignition combustion under steady state operation - combining fuel economy benefits similar to stratified charge systems with nearly negligible NOx and soot emissions - are already well known. With the newly developed AVL- CSI system (Compression and Spark Ignition), a precise combustion control is achieved even under transient operation. For compensation of production and operation tolerances a cost optimized cylinder individual control was developed. Completely new functionalities of the engine management system are applied. This lean GDI concept complies with future emission standards without DeNOx catalyst and can be applied worldwide.
Technical Paper

VVT+Port Deactivation Application on a Small Displacement SI 4 Cylinder 16V Engine: An Effective Way to Reduce Vehicle Fuel Consumption

During recent years several VVT devices have been developed, in order to improve either peak power and low end torque, or part load fuel consumption of SI engines. This paper describes an experimental activity, concerning the integration of a continuously variable cam phaser (CVCP), together with an intake port deactivation device, on a small 4 cylinder 16V engine. The target was to achieve significantly lower fuel consumption under normal driving conditions, compared to a standard MPFI application. A single hydraulic cam phaser is used to shift both the intake and the exhaust cams to retarded positions, at constant overlap. Thus, high EGR rates in the combustion chamber and late intake valve closure (“reverse Miller cycle”) are combined, in order to reduce pumping losses at part load.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Simplification-Ways Towards Improved Fuel Economy

A broad variety of new technologies for improving fuel economy is currently under development or investigation. The general statement is that always a compromise between fuel economy benefit and engine oncost has to be found. This paper describes a new way for improving fuel economy based on existing technologies used in a refined way. It is shown that with very simple and robust measures on the intake and exhaust ports and on the valve train mechanism 2 valve and 4 valve engines can show a significant improvement in fuel consumption without having a great cost penalty for production. The basic system consists of a single cam phaser and a special port arrangement on a 2 valve engine with a single camshaft operated at stoichiometric air/fuel ratio utilizing internal EGR and a reverse “Miller-Cycle”. Variable charge motion is generated using a shared flow through the intake and the exhaust port by varying cam timing.
Technical Paper

The Single Cylinder OM441LA

This paper will describe the design criteria for a single cylinder version of the Daimler-Chrysler OM441LA engine, which is currently used in multicylinder form as a key test in the ACEA A4 and A5 Oil Sequences. A test procedure has been developed for the single cylinder which provides results correlating with its multicylinder counterpart. The historical development of the procedure, correlation data, and economic benefits of use will be presented.
Technical Paper

A New 3D Model For Vaporizing Diesel Sprays Based on Mixing-Limited Vaporization

Results from numerical computations performed to represent the transient behavior of vaporizing sprays injected into a constant volume chamber and into a High Speed Direct Injection combustion chamber are presented. In order to describe the liquid phase, a new model has been developed from ideas brought forward by recent experimental results (Siebers, 1999) and numerical considerations (Abraham, 1999). The liquid penetration length is given by a 1D model which has been validated on a large number of experiments. In the 3D calculation, break-up, vaporization, drag, collision and coalescence are not modeled. The mass, momentum and energy transfers from the liquid to the gas phase are imposed from the nozzle exit surface to the liquid penetration length. This model enables us to reach time step and grid-independent results. The gas penetrations obtained with the model are checked against experimental results in a constant volume chamber (Verhoeven et al., 1998).
Technical Paper

Production Feasible DME Technology for Direct Injection CI Engines

DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been shown to be a very attractive fuel for low emission direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engines. It combines the advantages of the high efficiencies of diesel cycle engines with soot free combustion. However, its greatest drawback is the need to develop new fuel injection and handling systems. Previous approaches have been common rail type injection systems which have shown great potential in reducing harmful exhaust emissions and achieving good engine performance and efficiency due to good control of both the fuel injection characteristics and temperature. The concept also has proven benefits with respect to convenient and safe fuel handling. The logical evolution of this concept simplifies the fuel system and avoids special components for DME handling such as high pressure rail pumps while retaining all the benefits of the common rail principle.
Technical Paper

Lightweight design~A challenge for modern passenger car engines

The application of lightweight materials for new crankcase concepts implies comprehensive design considerations to achieve weight reductions as close as possible to the potential of the selected material. A specific approach for inline and V-engine crankcase concepts is discussed in detail. Engine weight reduction can also be achieved through "Downsizing." Modern technologies applied to existing engine concepts increase the power-weight ratio, the engine''s capability and therefore its marketing value. The use of lightweight materials for diesel and gasoline engines within one engine family allows a combined production and a less costly machining. Aluminum and magnesium alloys are, due to their high relative strength (tensional strength and e-modulus divided by their material densities), suitable for weight-reduced components which need to be designed for a specific target strength.