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Technical Paper

Production Feasible DME Technology for Direct Injection CI Engines

2001-05-07
2001-01-2015
DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been shown to be a very attractive fuel for low emission direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engines. It combines the advantages of the high efficiencies of diesel cycle engines with soot free combustion. However, its greatest drawback is the need to develop new fuel injection and handling systems. Previous approaches have been common rail type injection systems which have shown great potential in reducing harmful exhaust emissions and achieving good engine performance and efficiency due to good control of both the fuel injection characteristics and temperature. The concept also has proven benefits with respect to convenient and safe fuel handling. The logical evolution of this concept simplifies the fuel system and avoids special components for DME handling such as high pressure rail pumps while retaining all the benefits of the common rail principle.
Technical Paper

The Clean Heavy Duty Diesel Engine of the Future: Strategies for Emission Compliance

2001-11-01
2001-28-0045
The internal combustion engines, and the heavy duty truck diesel engines in particular, are facing a severe challenge to cope with the upcoming stringent emission legislation world-wide. To comply with these low limits, engine internal measures must be complemented with exhaust gas aftertreatment systems with sophisticated electronic control. A reduction of NOx and particulate emission of more than 90% is required. Various strategies to comply with Euro 4, 5 and US 2007 are discussed, also in view of engine performance, fuel economy and cooling system load. Recommendations are given for the most suitable approach to comply also in future with emission legislation in Europe and the United States.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations and Computations of Unsteady Flow Past a Real Car Using a Robust Elliptic Relaxation Closure with a Universal Wall Treatment

2007-04-16
2007-01-0104
In the present work we investigated experimentally and computationally the unsteady flow around a BMW car model including wheels*. This simulation yields mean flow and turbulence fields, enabling the study aerodynamic coefficients (drag and lift coefficients, three-dimensional/spatial wall-pressure distribution) as well as some unsteady flow phenomena in the car wake (analysis of the vortex shedding frequency). Comparisons with experimental findings are presented. The computational approach used is based on solving the complete transient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (TRANS) equations. Special attention is devoted to turbulence modelling and the near-wall treatment of turbulence. The flow calculations were performed using a robust, eddy-viscosity-based ζ - ƒ turbulence model in the framework of the elliptic relaxation concept and in conjunction with the universal wall treatment, combining integration up to the wall and wall functions.
Technical Paper

Sound - Design for Motorcycles Influence of Different Parameters on the Sound

2006-11-13
2006-32-0084
Beside performance, handling and styling the sound characteristic of a motorcycle is a very important feature for the acceptance of the product by the customers and therefore the commercial success of a new product. Creating a special brand sound becomes more and more important to create a product that can be easily distinguished from competitor products and is therefore considered to be something special. On the other hand the legal limits in terms of pass - by noise allow for a very little margin for the creation of a special sound. During the product sound design phase the different perceptions of the rider wearing a helmet and pedestrians have to be considered. In passenger cars sound design has been known for a long time and the creation of a special sound for the driver inside the passenger compartment can be achieved with little influence on the exterior noise and therefore on the noise which is limited by legislation.
Technical Paper

The Role of Fuel Cells in Commercial Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4273
Fuel Cells (FC) are promising candidates to reduce energy consumption and, hence, to improve the global climate situation due to significant gains in the process efficiencies. Whereas the development of fuel cells for passenger car applications has intensified during the last years, commercial vehicle applications have not been in the focus of developers so far. A reason for that is the limited availability of fuels such as hydrogen. Commercial vehicles are in the most cases operated with diesel fuel. AVL has developed three fuel cell applications for commercial vehicles operated with diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

HD Base Engine Development to Meet Future Emission and Power Density Challenges of a DDI™ Engine

2007-10-30
2007-01-4225
This paper describes development challenges for Heavy-Duty (HD) on-highway Diesel Direct Injection (DDI™) engines to meet the extremely advanced US-EPA 2010 (later named US 2010) emission limits while further increasing power density in combination with competitive engine efficiency. It discusses technologies and solutions for lowest engine-out emissions in combination with most competitive fuel consumption values and excellent dynamic behavior. To achieve these challenging targets, base engine hardware requirements are described. In detail the development of EGR systems, especially the challenges of running high EGR rates over the whole engine speed range also at high load, the dynamic EGR control for transient engine operation to achieve lowest NOx emissions at the smoke limit with excellent load response is discussed. Also the effect of the turbo-machinery on power density and transient engine behavior is shown.
Technical Paper

Methodology and Tools to Predict GDI Injector Tip Wetting as Predecessor of Tip Sooting

2018-04-03
2018-01-0286
With upcoming emission regulations particle emissions for GDI engines are challenging engine and injector developers. Despite the introduction of GPFs, engine-out emission should be optimized to avoid extra cost and exhaust backpressure. Engine tests with a state of the art Miller GDI engine showed up to 200% increased particle emissions over the test duration due to injector deposit related diffusion flames. No spray altering deposits have been found inside the injector nozzle. To optimize this tip sooting behavior a tool chain is presented which involves injector multiphase simulations, a spray simulation coupled with a wallfilm model and testing. First the flow inside the injector is analyzed based on a 3D-XRay model. The next step is a Lagrangian spray simulation coupled with a wallfilm module which is used to simulate the fuel impingement on the injector tip and counter-bores.
Technical Paper

Combustion System Development of a High Performance and Fuel Efficient TGDI Engine Guided by CFD Simulation and Test

2017-10-08
2017-01-2282
A TGDI (turbocharged gasoline direct injection) engine is developed to realize both excellent fuel economy and high dynamic performance to guarantee fun-to-drive. In order to achieve this target, it is of great importance to develop a superior combustion system for the target engine. In this study, CFD simulation analysis, steady flow test and transparent engine test investigation are extensively conducted to ensure efficient and effective design. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation is firstly conducted to optimize controlling parameters for each representative engine operating condition, and the results serve as the input and boundary condition for the subsequent Three-dimensional CFD simulation. 3D CFD simulation is carried out to guide intake port design, which is then measured and verified on steady flow test bench.
Technical Paper

Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

2019-11-21
2019-28-2504
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas after treatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost- efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented test procedures. The focus will be on solutions which have potential for the Indian market, i.e. solutions which can be implemented with moderate application effort for currently available compact and medium size cars.
Technical Paper

Modular and Swappable 48V Battery Systems for Emerging Markets

2019-01-09
2019-26-0032
Electrification globally shows promise in reducing greenhouse and noxious emissions. Although there is immense potential in such technologies penetrating across vehicle segments in the Indian market, the key lies in offering scalable, cost effective battery solutions suiting the diverse product and customer needs. This paper describes the development and possible applications of a low voltage battery system that fulfills the current needs on the Indian market. Based on real-world driving profiles the energy and power output required for the target platform are determined. Keeping in mind the Indian operating conditions, safety requirements, driving behavior, charging infrastructure, operational costs, supplier network and serviceability, technical requirements for such systems are described. Also, benchmarking data of current battery systems help to optimize the mechanical, thermal, and electrical layouts.
Technical Paper

OBD Algorithms: Model-based Development and Calibration

2007-10-30
2007-01-4222
The OBD II and EOBD legislation have significantly increased the number of system components that have to be monitored in order to avoid emissions degradation. Consequently, the algorithm design and the related calibration effort is becoming more and more challenging. Because of decreasing OBD thresholds, the monitoring strategy accuracy, which is tightly related with the components tolerances and the calibration quality, has to be improved. A model-based offline simulation of the monitoring strategies allows consideration of component and sensor tolerances as well as a first calibration optimization in the early development phase. AVL applied and improved a methodology that takes into account this information, which would require a big effort using testbed or vehicle measurements. In many cases a component influence analysis is possible before hardware is available for testbed measurements.
Technical Paper

An integrated 1D/3D workflow for analysis and optimization of injection parameters of a diesel engine

2001-09-23
2001-24-0004
The present contribution gives an overview of the use of different simulation tools for the optimization of injection parameters of a diesel engine. With a one-dimensional tool, the behavior of the mechanics and fluid dynamics of the entire injection system is calculated. This simulation provides information on the dynamic needle lift, injection rates, pressures, etc. The flow within the injector is simulated using a three-dimensional CFD tool. By use of a two-phase model, it is possible to analyze the cavitating flow inside the injector and to calculate the effective nozzle hole area as well as the exit flow characteristics. Mixture formation, combustion and pollutant formation simulation is performed adopting three-dimensional CFD. In order to provide the initial and boundary conditions for the engine CFD simulation and to optimize the engine cycle performance a one-dimensional tool is adopted.
Technical Paper

Comparison of CO2 Emission Levels for Internal Combustion Engine and Fuel Cell Automotive Propulsion Systems

2001-11-12
2001-01-3751
The well-to-wheel CO2 emissions and energy use of internal combustion engines (diesel and gasoline) are compared to fuel cell automotive propulsion systems. The fuel cell technologies investigated are polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The fuels are assumed to be produced from either crude oil or natural gas. The comparison is based on driving cycle simulations of a mid-class passenger car with an inertia test weight of 1350 kg. The study shows that the optimized diesel drive train (downsized mated to an integrated starter generator) achieves the best overall energy efficiency. The lowest CO2 emissions are produced by compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. Fuel cell propulsion systems achieve similar or even better CO2 emission values under hot start conditions but suffer from high energy input required during warm-up.
Technical Paper

Pass-By Noise Prediction for Trucks Based on Powertrain Test-Cell Measurements

2001-04-30
2001-01-1564
The paper outlines and discusses the possibilities of a new instrumentation tool for the analysis of engine and gearbox noise radiation and the prediction of pass-by noise from powertrain test cell measurements. Based on a 32 channel data acquisition board, the system is intended to be quick and easy to apply in order to support engineers during their daily work in the test cell. The pass-by prediction is a purely experimental approach with test cell recordings being weighted by measured transfer functions (from the powertrain compartment to the pass-by point).
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Warm-Up with Integration of Vehicle and Engine Cycle Simulation

2001-05-14
2001-01-1697
The incorporation of a detailed engine process calculation that takes into account thermal behavior of the engine and exhaust system is essential for a realistic simulation of transient vehicle operation. This is the only possible way to have a precise preliminary calculation of fuel consumption and emissions. Therefore, a comprehensive thermal network of the engine based on the lumped capacity method has been developed. The model allows the computation of component temperatures in steady state operation as well as in transient engine studies, e.g. investigations of engine warm-up. The model is integrated in a co-simulation environment consisting of a detailed vehicle and engine cycle simulation code. The paper describes the procedure of the co-simulation and presents several examples of warm-up simulations.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0585
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

Computational Study of the Aerodynamics of a Realistic Car Model by Means of RANS and Hybrid RANS/LES Approaches

2014-04-01
2014-01-0594
The aerodynamic properties of a BMW car model, representing a 40%-scaled model of a relevant car configuration, are studied computationally by means of the Unsteady RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) and Hybrid RANS/LES (Large-Eddy Simulation) approaches. The reference database (geometry, operating parameters and surface pressure distribution) are adopted from an experimental investigation carried out in the wind tunnel of the BMW Group in Munich (Schrefl, 2008). The present computational study focuses on validation of some recently developed turbulence models for unsteady flow computations in conjunction with the universal wall treatment combining integration up to the wall and high Reynolds number wall functions in such complex flow situations. The turbulence model adopted in both Unsteady RANS and PANS (Partially-Averaged Navier Stokes) frameworks is the four-equation ζ − f formulation of Hanjalic et al. (2004) based on the Elliptic Relaxation Concept (Durbin, 1991).
Journal Article

A Study on Operation Fluid Consumption for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Application using both, EGR and SCR

2013-09-24
2013-01-2474
This paper describes a method for optimization of engine settings in view of best total cost of operation fluids. Under specific legal NOX tailpipe emissions requirements the engine out NOX can be matched to the current achievable SCR NOX conversion efficiency. In view of a heavy duty long haul truck application various specific engine operation modes are defined. A heavy duty diesel engine was calibrated for all operation modes in an engine test cell. The characteristics of engine operation are demonstrated in different transient test cycles. Optimum engine operation mode (EOM) selection strategies between individual engine operation modes are discussed in view of legal test cycles and real world driving cycles which have been derived from on-road tests.
Journal Article

A Model-Based Configuration Approach for Automotive Real-Time Operating Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-0183
Automotive embedded systems have become very complex, are strongly integrated, and the safety-criticality and real-time constraints of these systems raise new challenges. The OSEK/VDX standard provides an open-ended architecture for distributed real-time capable units in vehicles. This is supported by the OSEK Implementation Language (OIL), a language aiming at specifying the configuration of these real-time operating systems. The challenge, however, is to ensure consistency of the concept constraints and configurations along the entire product development. The contribution of this paper is to bridge the existing gap between model-driven systems engineering and software engineering for automotive real-time operating systems (RTOS). For this purpose a bidirectional tool bridge has been established based on OSEK OIL exchange format files.
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