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Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Specifications and Different Aftertreatment Systems on Exhaust Gas Odour and Non-Regulated Emissions at Steady State and Dynamic Operation of DI-Diesel Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3559
Diesel exhaust gas contains low molecular aliphatic carbonyl compounds and strongly smelling organic acids, which are known to have an irritant influence on eyes, nose and mucous membranes. Thus, diesel exhaust aftertreatment has to be considered more critically than that of gasoline engines, with respect to the formation of undesired by-products. The results presented here have been carried out as research work sponsored by the German Research Association for Internal Combustion Engines (FVV). The main objective of the three year project was to evaluate the behaviour of current and future catalyst technology on the one hand (oxidation catalyst, CRT system, SCR process), and regulated and certain selected non-regulated exhaust gas emission components and exhaust gas odour on the other hand.
Technical Paper

Using Simulation and Optimization Tools to Decide Engine Design Concepts

2000-03-06
2000-01-1267
To meet the future demands on internal combustion engines regarding efficiency emissions and durability all design parameters must be optimized together. As a result of progress in material engineering fuel injection technology turbo charging technology exhaust gas after treatment there arise a multiplicity of possible parameters, such as: design parameters (compression ratio, dimensioning depending on peak firing pressure and mean effective pressure), injection system (rate shaping, split injection, injection pressure, hole diameter), air management (turbo charging with or without VTG, EGR rate) combustion optimization (timing, air access ratio). The interaction of all these parameters can not be over-looked without simulation and optimization tools. This is valid for the concept layout, the optimization and the application process later on.
Technical Paper

Production Feasible DME Technology for Direct Injection CI Engines

2001-05-07
2001-01-2015
DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been shown to be a very attractive fuel for low emission direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engines. It combines the advantages of the high efficiencies of diesel cycle engines with soot free combustion. However, its greatest drawback is the need to develop new fuel injection and handling systems. Previous approaches have been common rail type injection systems which have shown great potential in reducing harmful exhaust emissions and achieving good engine performance and efficiency due to good control of both the fuel injection characteristics and temperature. The concept also has proven benefits with respect to convenient and safe fuel handling. The logical evolution of this concept simplifies the fuel system and avoids special components for DME handling such as high pressure rail pumps while retaining all the benefits of the common rail principle.
Technical Paper

Analytical system for combustion engine exhaust emissions

2000-06-12
2000-05-0346
As emission regulations become tighter and tighter, equipment must evolve to be able to achieve the new standards. Also additional test requirements demand a system that is flexible and can accommodate differences both in the tests and the test facility. By that test cell equipment for chassis dynamometer as well as engine dynamometer applications is getting increasingly complex. That also will require new concepts for the design of such systems. In the past emission system design was more likely a collection and packaging process, which has interfaced various independent components. Now, the development of modern analytical emission systems requires a true holistic design process. This paper will describe the demands and the realization of a modern emission system. It can be shown that an extended effort during the design process will result in a high performance system, which still remains simple and robust.
Technical Paper

Design impacts on CVS systems meeting future requirements for equivalent zero emissions vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0347
The latest legislation requires a dramatic reduction of motor vehicle exhaust emission. This is also a big challenge for emission measurement instrumentation, because of almost zero concentrations of certain components in the exhaust. For current measurement devices, which are recommended by the legislation, it is almost impossible to determine such low emission levels with adequate accuracy. The paper describes a new Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) system with reduced dilution, warming and quick flow rate changing capability. Possible solutions are discussed and the properties of data measured with test facilities which are prepared to cover S-ULEV and EURO IV applications are described. Also the selection of used materials is of rising importance. The tests were performed on a dynamic engine test bed which was equipped with such a CVS system and with emission analyzing systems for raw exhaust and diluted measurements.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Warm-Up with Integration of Vehicle and Engine Cycle Simulation

2001-05-14
2001-01-1697
The incorporation of a detailed engine process calculation that takes into account thermal behavior of the engine and exhaust system is essential for a realistic simulation of transient vehicle operation. This is the only possible way to have a precise preliminary calculation of fuel consumption and emissions. Therefore, a comprehensive thermal network of the engine based on the lumped capacity method has been developed. The model allows the computation of component temperatures in steady state operation as well as in transient engine studies, e.g. investigations of engine warm-up. The model is integrated in a co-simulation environment consisting of a detailed vehicle and engine cycle simulation code. The paper describes the procedure of the co-simulation and presents several examples of warm-up simulations.
Technical Paper

Impact of Future Exhaust Gas Emission Legislation on the Heavy Duty Truck Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0186
Emission standards as proposed in Europe and the United States for heavy duty diesel engines will require a NOx and particulate reduction of more than 90%. This cannot be achieved by internal engine measures alone. Aftertreatment systems, for either one or both emission components, plus sophisticated electronic control strategies will be required. Various strategies to comply with EU 4, 5 and US 2007 are discussed, also showing their impact on engine performance. For typical 1 and 2 liter per cylinder engines, emission reduction concepts are assessed to identify the most suitable technology for major worldwide markets. The assessment is based on thermodynamic studies, test-bed results and estimates on cost and infrastructure implications.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

2000-10-16
2000-01-2909
In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

Simulation Aided Process for Developing Powertrains

2000-12-01
2000-01-3161
For the development of complex control algorithms and strategies the engine and powertrain test bed offers a number of advantages over the development in the prototype vehicle. The paper discusses how state-of-the-art simulation techniques can contribute to a continuous development process, which is based upon offline simulation using hardware in the loop, the utilization of modern test bed technology up to vehicle adjustment. The integration of hardware-in-the-loop testing together with vehicle and transmission simulation on the testbed allows to speed up the optimization of fuel consumption, emissions and driveability in an early stage in the development process. The available software tools are presented and application examples are given.
Technical Paper

Subjective Assessment of Roughness as a Basis for Objective Vehicle Interior Noise Quality Evaluation

1999-05-17
1999-01-1850
This paper focuses on psychoacoustical experiments for the assessment of roughness by using vehicle interior noise. The experimental design is carried out carefully to derive reliable data for further analysis with objective parameters. Apart from the acoustical properties of the recording/playback system the different meanings of the word roughness are taken into account, because each person has its own interpretation of ‘roughness’ differing between the phenomenons of roughness, r-roughness, rumble, harshness, fluctuation strength, etc.. An important preparation for psychoacoustical experiments is a clear definition of the sound attribute under investigation by using typical examples. Furthermore, accidental influences of other psychoacoustical parameters like the influence of loudness have to be avoided.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging the DI Gasoline Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0251
Regarding concepts for naturally aspirated engines, the high potential for fuel economy of Gasoline Direct Injection can only partially be utilized within the constraints of current or future emission legislation like EURO III / IV or LEV/ULEV. Instead of an expected improvement of 20 - 25 % currently only 10 - 15% can be obtained by the engine alone without vehicle optimizations considering all limitations of high volume production. A detailed analysis reveals concrete measures for further improvement. The application of DI gasoline technology clearly favors the combination with other fuel efficient technologies like downsizing by turbocharging and the application of a variable effective compression ratio by intake valve timing variation. Using the flexibility of direct gasoline injection some deficiencies of these technologies can be eliminated.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a New Design for CVS-Systems Meeting the Requirements of S-ULEV and EURO IV

2000-03-06
2000-01-0800
The latest legislation requires the automotive industry to once again reduce the emission levels of their latest vehicles. This leads to a new challenge in the field of emission measurement, because the concentrations of certain components of the exhaust gases are extremely low. For current measurement devices, which are recommended by the legislation, it is almost impossible to determine such low emission levels with the necessary accuracy. This study evaluates the features of an improved CVS system (Constant Volume Sampling) with the possibility of heating and the ability of changing flow rates quickly. Possible solutions are discussed and the properties of data measured with test facilities which are prepared to cover S-ULEV and EURO IV applications are described. The tests were performed on a dynamic engine test bed which was equipped with such a CVS system and with emission analyzing systems for raw exhaust and diluted measurements.
Technical Paper

Study of Interferences for ULEV-CVS Measurement, Related to the Complete Measuring System, Discussion of Error Sources, Cross-Sensitivity and Adsorption

2000-03-06
2000-01-0796
Bag emission measurements on Ultra Low Emission Vehicles require measurement sensitivities in the 1 ppm range for HC and NOx and measurement resolutions well below this to obtain sufficient accuracy and repeatability. Additionally, an analysis of the C2 to C12 components is required. In these emission ranges, adsorption, desorption, diffusion and chemical reaction processes may produce significant effects to the measuring values. Therefore, improvements are necessary to avoid this as far as possible. However, for physical reasons these effects cannot be eliminated completely. For example: Particle filters are not 100% efficient and particles will slowly contaminate the surfaces. Due to physical and chemical processes with some gas components, even stainless steel and Teflon can change their characteristics. Problems resulting from the physical and chemical effects and provisions to minimize the influences to the measuring accuracy and system stability are discussed.
Technical Paper

An integrated 1D/3D workflow for analysis and optimization of injection parameters of a diesel engine

2001-09-23
2001-24-0004
The present contribution gives an overview of the use of different simulation tools for the optimization of injection parameters of a diesel engine. With a one-dimensional tool, the behavior of the mechanics and fluid dynamics of the entire injection system is calculated. This simulation provides information on the dynamic needle lift, injection rates, pressures, etc. The flow within the injector is simulated using a three-dimensional CFD tool. By use of a two-phase model, it is possible to analyze the cavitating flow inside the injector and to calculate the effective nozzle hole area as well as the exit flow characteristics. Mixture formation, combustion and pollutant formation simulation is performed adopting three-dimensional CFD. In order to provide the initial and boundary conditions for the engine CFD simulation and to optimize the engine cycle performance a one-dimensional tool is adopted.
Technical Paper

Improvement of LEV/ULEV Potential of Fuel Efficient High Performance Engines

1992-02-01
920416
The combined requirement of achieving CAFE values between 32 to 38 mpg plus LEV/ULEV emission standards to comply with US legal requirements between 1995 and 2000 represents the most demanding challenge for engine engineering. Thus all possible methods of engine improvement towards fuel economy and emissions have to be considered. Besides using new ideas also the methods of engine development have to be modernized to cope with the challenge. The paper presents advanced combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems which combine high power output, favourable torque characteristics and high fuel economy with the potential for obtaining LEV/ULEV emission values, as well as improved development techniques.
Technical Paper

Flame Visualisation in Standard SI-Engines - Results of a Tomographic Combustion Analysis

1997-02-24
970870
An optical sensor system provides access to standard SI engine combustion chambers via the cylinder head gasket. Flame radiation within the plane of the gasket is observed with optical fibers which are arranged to allow the tomographic reconstruction of flame distribution. The effect of convective in-cylinder air motion generated by variations of inlet ports and combustion chamber geometries on flame propagation is directly visible. A high degree of correlation between flame intensity distribution and NOx emission levels yields a useful assessment of combustion chamber configurations with minimum emission levels. The location of knock centers is identified.
Technical Paper

The Interaction Between Diesel Fuel Density and Electronic Engine Management Systems

1996-10-01
961975
The influence of fuel density on exhaust emissions from diesel engines has been investigated in a number of studies and these have generally concluded that particulate emissions rise with increasing density This paper reviews recent work in this area, including the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) and reports on a complementary study conducted by CONCAWE, in cooperation with AVL List GmbH The project was carried out with a passenger car equipped with an advanced technology high speed direct injection turbocharged / intercooled diesel engine fitted with a complex engine management system which was referenced to a specific fuel density This production model featured electronic diesel control, closed loop exhaust gas recirculation and an exhaust oxidation catalyst Tests were carried out with two EPEFE fuels which excluded the influence of key fuel properties other than density (828 8 and 855 1 kg/m3) Engine operation was adjusted for changes in fuel density by resetting the electronic programmable, read-only memory to obtain the same energy output from the two test fuels In chassis dynamometer tests over the ECE15 + EUDC test cycle the major impact of fuel density on particulate emissions for advanced engine technology/engine management systems was established A large proportion of the density effect on particulate and NOx emissions was due to physical interaction between fuel density and the electronic engine management system Limited bench engine testing of the basic engine showed that nearly complete compensation of the density effect on smoke (particulate) emissions could be achieved when no advanced technology was applied
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Technology for Low Emissions HSDI Diesel Engines

1996-10-01
962369
The worldwide trend to increasingly stringent exhaust emissions standards, together with consumer requirements, are forcing both vehicle and engine manufacturers, as well as manufacturers of ancilliary equipment, to introduce new and often novel technology in order to produce clean, quiet and socially acceptable transport at affordable prices. The combustion process lies at the heart of the engine and the quality of the combustion determines the acceptability of the product to a very large extent. The fuel injection system plays a large role in the combustion process and in consequence, the fuel system type and capabilities strongly influence the performance of the combustion system. There has never been such a range of fuel injection systems available at one time as there is today. High pressure hydraulically actuated systems /1/ compete with cam driven fuel injection systems /2/ to deliver the injection requirements demanded by the vehicles both of today and in the future.
Technical Paper

ULEV Potential of a DI/TCI Diesel Passenger Car Engine Operated on Dimethyl Ether

1995-12-01
952754
The paper describes a feasibility test program on a 2 liter, 4 cylinder DI/TCI passenger car engine operated on the new alternative fuel Dimethyl Ether (DME, CH3 - O - CH3) with the aim of demonstrating its potential of meeting ULEV emissions (0.2 g/mi NOx in the FTP 75 test cycle) when installed in a full size passenger car. Special attention is drawn to the fuel injection equipment (FIE) as well as combustion system requirements towards the reduction of NOx and combustion noise while keeping energetic fuel consumption at the level of the baseline DI/TCI diesel engine. FIE and combustion system parameters were optimized on the steady state dynamometer by variation of a number of parameters, such as rate of injection, number of nozzle holes, compression ratio, piston bowl shape and exhaust gas recirculation.
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