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Technical Paper

A Novel Ultrasonic Intake Air Flow Meter for Test Bed Applications

2013-01-09
2013-26-0118
The development process of a combustion engine is now a days strongly influenced by future emission regulations which require further reduction in fuel consumption and precise control of combustion process based on Intake air measurement, during engine development. Intake air flow meters clearly differentiate themselves from typical industrial gas flow meters because of their ability to measure extremely dynamic phenomenon of combustion engine. Thus, high internal data acquisition rate, short response time, ability to measure pulsating and reverse flows with lower measurement uncertainty are the factors that ensures the reliability of the results without being affected by ambient influences, sensor contamination or sensor aging. The AVL developed FLOWSONIX™ is based on ultrasonic transit time measuring principle with broad-band Capacitive Ultrasonic Transducer (CUT) characterized by an excellent air impedance matching strongly distinguishes itself by fulfilling all those requirements.
Technical Paper

Multi-Component Modeling of Diesel Fuel for Injection and Combustion Simulation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0007
Accurate simulation tools are needed for rapid and cost effective engine development in order to meet ever tighter pollutant regulations for future internal combustion engines. The formation of pollutants such as soot and NOx in Diesel engines is strongly influenced by local concentration of the reactants and local temperature in the combustion chamber. Therefore it is of great importance to model accurately the physics of the injection process, combustion and emission formation. It is common practice to approximate Diesel fuel as a single compound fuel for the simulation of the injection and combustion process. This is in many cases sufficient to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder pressure and heat release in the combustion chamber. The prediction of soot and NOx formation depends however on locally component resolved quantities related to the fuel liquid and gas phase as well as local temperature.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Systems - Thermal Behavior During Different Operating Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0865
The introduction of more stringent standards for engine emissions requires continuous improvement of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. Modern systems require a combined design and application of different aftertreatment devices. Computer simulation helps to investigate the complexity of different system layouts. This study presents an overall aftertreatment modeling framework comprising dedicated models for pipes, oxidation catalysts, wall flow particulate filters and selective catalytic converters. The model equations of all components are discussed. The individual behavior of all components is compared to experimental data. With these well calibrated models a simulation study on a DOC-DPF-SCR exhaust system is performed. The impact of pipe wall insulation on the overall NOx conversion performance is investigated during four different engine operating conditions taken from a heavy-duty drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Can the Technology for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines be Common for Future Emission Regulations in USA, Japan and Europe?

2003-03-03
2003-01-0344
Exhaust emission legislation world-wide have a common trend towards very low limits, measured for compliance in transient cycles specific for the United States, Japan and Europe. The emission development strategy is focussing on lowest engine-out emissions to require a minimum of exhaust gas aftertreatment. The base engine concept is described and test results, complying with Euro 4, are shown. The emission reduction development for future regulations requires exhaust gas aftertreatment, test results are shown for US 2007, JNLTR and Euro 5. With exhaust gas aftertreatment, discussed in the appendix, the engine development is faced with a big challenge to ensure the minimum exhaust gas temperature required for their proper function.
Technical Paper

New Physical and Chemical Models for the CFD Simulation of Exhaust Gas Lines: A Generic Approach

2002-03-04
2002-01-0066
In the near future the effort on the development of exhaust gas treatment systems must be increased to meet the stringent emission requirements. If the relevant physical and chemical models are available, the numerical simulation is an important tool for the design of these systems. This work presents a CFD model that allows to cover the full range of applications in this area. After a detailed presentation of the theoretical background and the modeling strategies results for the simulation of a close-coupled catalyst are shown. The presented model is also applied to the oxidation of nitrogen oxides, to a diesel particle filter and a fuel-cell reformer catalyst.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Specifications and Different Aftertreatment Systems on Exhaust Gas Odour and Non-Regulated Emissions at Steady State and Dynamic Operation of DI-Diesel Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3559
Diesel exhaust gas contains low molecular aliphatic carbonyl compounds and strongly smelling organic acids, which are known to have an irritant influence on eyes, nose and mucous membranes. Thus, diesel exhaust aftertreatment has to be considered more critically than that of gasoline engines, with respect to the formation of undesired by-products. The results presented here have been carried out as research work sponsored by the German Research Association for Internal Combustion Engines (FVV). The main objective of the three year project was to evaluate the behaviour of current and future catalyst technology on the one hand (oxidation catalyst, CRT system, SCR process), and regulated and certain selected non-regulated exhaust gas emission components and exhaust gas odour on the other hand.
Technical Paper

A New 3D Model For Vaporizing Diesel Sprays Based on Mixing-Limited Vaporization

2000-03-06
2000-01-0949
Results from numerical computations performed to represent the transient behavior of vaporizing sprays injected into a constant volume chamber and into a High Speed Direct Injection combustion chamber are presented. In order to describe the liquid phase, a new model has been developed from ideas brought forward by recent experimental results (Siebers, 1999) and numerical considerations (Abraham, 1999). The liquid penetration length is given by a 1D model which has been validated on a large number of experiments. In the 3D calculation, break-up, vaporization, drag, collision and coalescence are not modeled. The mass, momentum and energy transfers from the liquid to the gas phase are imposed from the nozzle exit surface to the liquid penetration length. This model enables us to reach time step and grid-independent results. The gas penetrations obtained with the model are checked against experimental results in a constant volume chamber (Verhoeven et al., 1998).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a New Design for CVS-Systems Meeting the Requirements of S-ULEV and EURO IV

2000-03-06
2000-01-0800
The latest legislation requires the automotive industry to once again reduce the emission levels of their latest vehicles. This leads to a new challenge in the field of emission measurement, because the concentrations of certain components of the exhaust gases are extremely low. For current measurement devices, which are recommended by the legislation, it is almost impossible to determine such low emission levels with the necessary accuracy. This study evaluates the features of an improved CVS system (Constant Volume Sampling) with the possibility of heating and the ability of changing flow rates quickly. Possible solutions are discussed and the properties of data measured with test facilities which are prepared to cover S-ULEV and EURO IV applications are described. The tests were performed on a dynamic engine test bed which was equipped with such a CVS system and with emission analyzing systems for raw exhaust and diluted measurements.
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