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Journal Article

A Metal Fibrous Filter for Diesel Hybrid Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0604
Trends towards lower vehicle fuel consumption and smaller environmental impact will increase the share of Diesel hybrids and Diesel Range Extended Vehicles (REV). Because of the Diesel engine presence and the ever tightening soot particle emissions, these vehicles will still require soot particle emissions control systems. Ceramic wall-flow monoliths are currently the key players in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) market, offering certain advantages compared to other DPF technologies such as the metal based DPFs. The latter had, in the past, issues with respect to filtration efficiency, available filtration area and, sometimes, their manufacturing cost, the latter factor making them less attractive for most of the conventional Diesel engine powered vehicles. Nevertheless, metal substrate DPFs may find a better position in vehicles like Diesel hybrids and REVs in which high instant power consumption is readily offered enabling electrical filter regeneration.
Technical Paper

Reducing Emissions and Improving Fuel Economy by Optimized Combustion of Alternative Fuels

2011-10-06
2011-28-0050
Alternative fuels, especially fuels based on biological matter, are gaining more and more attention. Not only as a pure substitute of oil but also in terms of a possibility for further reduction in emission and as an option to improve the global CO2 balance. For improving the engine performance (emissions, fuel consumption, torque and drivability) the adjustment of fuel injection, the fuel evaporation process and the combustion process itself is paramount. In order to exploit the full potential of alternative fuels excellent knowledge of the fuel properties, including the impact on ignition and flame propagation, is required. This needs suitable tools for analysis of the fuel injection and combustion process. These tools have to support the optimization of the combustion system and the dynamic engine calibration for lowest emissions and most efficient use of fuel. As the term “Alternative Fuels” covers a very wide area a brief overview on available fuel types will be made.
Technical Paper

A Novel Ultrasonic Intake Air Flow Meter for Test Bed Applications

2013-01-09
2013-26-0118
The development process of a combustion engine is now a days strongly influenced by future emission regulations which require further reduction in fuel consumption and precise control of combustion process based on Intake air measurement, during engine development. Intake air flow meters clearly differentiate themselves from typical industrial gas flow meters because of their ability to measure extremely dynamic phenomenon of combustion engine. Thus, high internal data acquisition rate, short response time, ability to measure pulsating and reverse flows with lower measurement uncertainty are the factors that ensures the reliability of the results without being affected by ambient influences, sensor contamination or sensor aging. The AVL developed FLOWSONIX™ is based on ultrasonic transit time measuring principle with broad-band Capacitive Ultrasonic Transducer (CUT) characterized by an excellent air impedance matching strongly distinguishes itself by fulfilling all those requirements.
Technical Paper

Advanced Methods for Calibration and Validation of Diesel-ECU Models Using Emission and Fuel Consumption Optimization and Prediction During Dynamic Warm Up Tests (EDC)

2013-01-09
2013-26-0113
A calibration and validation workflow will be presented in this paper, which utilizes common static global models for fuel consumption, NOx and soot. Due to the applicability for warm-up tests, e.g. New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the models need to predict the temperature influence and will be fitted with measuring data from a conditioned engine test bed. The applied model structure consisting of a number of global data-based sub-models is configured especially for the requirements of multi-injection strategies of common rail systems. Additionally common global models for several constant coolant water temperature levels are generated and the workflow tool supports the combination and segmentation of global nominal map with temperature correction maps for seamless and direct ECU setting.
Technical Paper

Functional Integration as Key for Affordable Electrified Passenger Car Powertrains

2013-01-09
2013-26-0067
Further fuel efficiency improvements are mandatory in order to achieve the CO2 emission limits envisaged in the future. Electrification of the powertrain is seen as one of the key technologies to achieve these future goals. However, electrification of the power train typically goes with a massive cost increase of the overall system itself which is especially crucial for cost sensitive markets like India. AVL's approach to cost reduction for comparable performance and fuel consumption target values is an integration of functions. This paper demonstrates that, through a deeper interaction of the single powertrain components, further fuel efficiency optimization may be gained. System optimization at a powertrain level enables the achievement of future powertrain targets with respect to fuel efficiency and performance with only minimal and reduced requirements at a component level (i.e. combustion engine, electric drive, transmission and battery).
Technical Paper

Technology Features and Development Methods for Spark Ignited Powertrain to Meet 2020 CO2 Emission Targets

2013-10-07
2013-36-0438
For achieving the forthcoming CO2 emission targets of 95g/km by 2020 and for the years beyond, comprehensive activities for powertrain technology as well as development methodology has to be utilized. It will by far not be enough to add a few single technology features to achieve the desired result. More and more the success will result from comprehensive combining of synergetic utilization of complementary effects. This will be the powertrain perfectly matched to the vehicle, including the energy source, and all together integrated by means of advanced development tools and methodology.
Journal Article

Compact Engine Architecture for Best Fuel Efficiency and High Performance - Challenge or Contradiction

2011-11-08
2011-32-0595
The world of automotive engineering shows a clear direction for upcoming development trends. Stringent fleet average fuel consumption targets and CO2 penalties as well as rising fuel prices and the consumer demand to lower operating costs increases the engineering efforts to optimize fuel economy. Passenger car engines have the benefit of higher degree of technology which can be utilized to reach the challenging targets. Variable valve timing, downsizing and turbo charging, direct gasoline injection, highly sophisticated operating strategies and even more electrification are already common technologies in the automotive industry but can not be directly carried over into a motorcycle application. The major differences like very small packaging space, higher rated speeds, higher power density in combination with lower production numbers and product costs do not allow implementation such high of degree of advanced technology into small-engine applications.
Technical Paper

Objective Driveability Development of Motorcycles with AVL-DRIVE

2014-11-11
2014-32-0020
Originally developed for the automotive market, a fully automatic real-time measurement tool AVL-DRIVE is commercially available for analyzing and scoring vehicle drive quality, also known as “Driveability”. This system from AVL uses its own transducers, calibrated to the sensitivity and response of the human body to measure the forces felt by the driver, such as acceleration, shock, surging, vibration, noise, etc. Simultaneously, the vehicle operating conditions are measured, (throttle grip angle, engine speed, gear, vehicle speed, temperature, etc.). Because the software is pre-programmed with the scores from a multitude of different vehicles in each vehicle class via neural networks and fuzzy logic formula, a quality score with reference to similar competitor vehicles is instantly given. This tool is already successfully implemented in the market for years to investigate such driveability parameters for passenger cars.
Technical Paper

HD Base Engine Development to Meet Future Emission and Power Density Challenges of a DDI™ Engine

2007-10-30
2007-01-4225
This paper describes development challenges for Heavy-Duty (HD) on-highway Diesel Direct Injection (DDI™) engines to meet the extremely advanced US-EPA 2010 (later named US 2010) emission limits while further increasing power density in combination with competitive engine efficiency. It discusses technologies and solutions for lowest engine-out emissions in combination with most competitive fuel consumption values and excellent dynamic behavior. To achieve these challenging targets, base engine hardware requirements are described. In detail the development of EGR systems, especially the challenges of running high EGR rates over the whole engine speed range also at high load, the dynamic EGR control for transient engine operation to achieve lowest NOx emissions at the smoke limit with excellent load response is discussed. Also the effect of the turbo-machinery on power density and transient engine behavior is shown.
Technical Paper

Shorter Engine Development Periods through Modern Fuel Consumption Measuring Technique

2004-11-16
2004-01-3388
New combustion principle concepts combined with enormous application efforts as well as rapid development of gasoline- and diesel injection systems, make high demands on the fuel consumption measuring system. Because of the high degree of automated test bed applications, challenging requirements to reliability and plausibility of measuring results at simultaneously shorter measuring times arise. The following paper describes a new fuel consumption measuring system by presenting specific application examples and shows how efficient utilisation of resources, regarding manpower and test bed capacity, can be reached and how a significant timesaving can be realised.
Technical Paper

Integrated 1-D Tools for Modeling Vehicle Thermal Management System

2004-11-16
2004-01-3406
The need to improve the engine performance and fuel consumption subject to ever more stringent emission standard spar the interest in the aspects of understanding and quantifying the thermal behavior of engine components and systems. Considering these points during the design of the vehicle thermal management system based on test would consume far too many resources. Fortunately, the simulation tools have become more prominent in the pre-prototype phase of the vehicle development process and they had reached a mature stage; where they can contribute successfully to a significant extend to meet the vehicle development targets. In this work, a methodology to model the Vehicle Thermal Management System (VTMS) in order to understand and quantify its behavior has been developed. The partial systems under consideration are: the gas circuit, the cooling circuit, the lubrication circuit and the thermal capacitance of the engine structure under the vehicle driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Transient Drive Cycles using CRUISE-BOOST Co-Simulation Techniques

2002-03-04
2002-01-0627
In order to improve the accuracy of vehicle simulation under transient cycle conditions and thus predict performance and fuel consumption, consideration of the complete system engine/drivetrain/vehicle is necessary. The coupling of otherwise independent simulation programs is therefore necessary for the vehicle and engine. The description of thermally transient processes enables the calculation of the heat balance of the engine, which in turn enables the simulation of warming up operation. Through consideration of the engine warming up process, the quality of the prediction of fuel consumption and emissions is improved. The combination of the simulation programs CRUISE and BOOST to determine the engine heat balance has proven to be successful for the analysis of transient drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Cabin Fluid Dynamics, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Comfort in Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

2005-05-10
2005-01-2000
Automobile manufacturers and suppliers are under pressure to develop more efficient thermal management systems as fuel consumption and emission regulations become stricter and buyers demand greater comfort and safety. Additionally, engines must be very efficient and windows must deice and defog quickly. These requirements are often in conflict. Moreover, package styling and cost constraints severely limit the design of coolant and air conditioning systems. Simulation-based design and virtual prototyping can ensure greater product performance and quality at reduced development time and cost. The representation of the vehicle thermal management needs a scalable approach with 0-D, 1-D, and 3-D fluid dynamics, multi-body dynamics, 3-D structural analysis, and control unit simulation capabilities. Different combinations and complexities of the simulation tools are required for various phases of the product development process.
Technical Paper

Numerical Studies for De-Icing Validation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1883
The de-icing process of the windscreen is a demanding problem in car climatization. In the first stages of the development procedure of air ducts, the numerical simulation plays an important role due to economy of time and money. Unfortunately, the available numerical methods for the generation of the computational grid and the simulation of the de-icing process are very time consuming and are complicated in handling. Therefore normally the quality of the de-icing process is evaluated with simplified simulation procedures or even with measurements late in the design process and necessary modifications are again time and cost consuming. The aim of this paper is to describe new methods for the de-icing simulation that will reduce meshing and calculation time by showing accurate results.
Technical Paper

Thermal Mechanical Fatigue Simulation of Cast iron Cylinder Heads

2005-04-11
2005-01-0796
The requirement for increased power and reduced emission and fuel consumption levels for diesel engines has created very stringent demands on the cylinder head design. In current engine development programs it is often observed that the limiting design factor is given by the thermal mechanical fatigue strength of the cylinder head. Design iterations resulting from durability testing are often necessary due to the lack of adequate simulation techniques for prediction thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) failure. A complete lifetime simulation process is presented in this paper with emphasis on a newly developed material model for describing the constitutive behavior of cast iron (i.e. gray cast iron and compacted graphite iron) under thermal cycling. The material model formulation is based on a continuum-damage-mechanics (CDM) approach in order to account for the tension / compression anomaly of cast iron.
Technical Paper

Optimization of New Advanced Combustion Systems Using Real-Time Combustion Control

2003-03-03
2003-01-1053
Due to stricter fuel consumption and emissions requirements new gasoline engine concepts using advanced combustion systems such as fully variable valve train and controlled auto-ignition (HCCI) become important. Classical generic methods developed for system optimization with an increased number of variabilities (e.g. DoE - Design of Experiments), need extensions, because closed loop control is required for critical system parameters like valve train actuation and combustion behavior. This paper describes a new approach called “controlled optimization”, which is an extension of DoE using real-time controllers for critical system parameters (e. g. combustion timing). This ensures stable engine operation and protection under all conditions. Less critical parameters are still used as simple DoE-set values. Combustion timing, directly related to spark advance in conventional gasoline engines, is also strongly influenced by valve timing parameters.
Technical Paper

CSI - Controlled Auto Ignition - the Best Solution for the Fuel Consumption - Versus Emission Trade-Off?

2003-03-03
2003-01-0754
In recent years several new gasoline engine technologies were introduced in order to reduce fuel consumption. Controlled autoignition seems to be an alternative to stratified part load operation, which is handicapped due to it's lean aftertreatment system for world wide application. The principal advantages of controlled auto ignition combustion under steady state operation - combining fuel economy benefits similar to stratified charge systems with nearly negligible NOx and soot emissions - are already well known. With the newly developed AVL- CSI system (Compression and Spark Ignition), a precise combustion control is achieved even under transient operation. For compensation of production and operation tolerances a cost optimized cylinder individual control was developed. Completely new functionalities of the engine management system are applied. This lean GDI concept complies with future emission standards without DeNOx catalyst and can be applied worldwide.
Technical Paper

VVT+Port Deactivation Application on a Small Displacement SI 4 Cylinder 16V Engine: An Effective Way to Reduce Vehicle Fuel Consumption

2003-03-03
2003-01-0020
During recent years several VVT devices have been developed, in order to improve either peak power and low end torque, or part load fuel consumption of SI engines. This paper describes an experimental activity, concerning the integration of a continuously variable cam phaser (CVCP), together with an intake port deactivation device, on a small 4 cylinder 16V engine. The target was to achieve significantly lower fuel consumption under normal driving conditions, compared to a standard MPFI application. A single hydraulic cam phaser is used to shift both the intake and the exhaust cams to retarded positions, at constant overlap. Thus, high EGR rates in the combustion chamber and late intake valve closure (“reverse Miller cycle”) are combined, in order to reduce pumping losses at part load.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Simplification-Ways Towards Improved Fuel Economy

2002-03-04
2002-01-0236
A broad variety of new technologies for improving fuel economy is currently under development or investigation. The general statement is that always a compromise between fuel economy benefit and engine oncost has to be found. This paper describes a new way for improving fuel economy based on existing technologies used in a refined way. It is shown that with very simple and robust measures on the intake and exhaust ports and on the valve train mechanism 2 valve and 4 valve engines can show a significant improvement in fuel consumption without having a great cost penalty for production. The basic system consists of a single cam phaser and a special port arrangement on a 2 valve engine with a single camshaft operated at stoichiometric air/fuel ratio utilizing internal EGR and a reverse “Miller-Cycle”. Variable charge motion is generated using a shared flow through the intake and the exhaust port by varying cam timing.
Technical Paper

Testing of a Long Haul Demonstrator Vehicle with a Waste Heat Recovery System on Public Road

2016-09-27
2016-01-8057
This paper presents the results of a long haul truck Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system from simulation, test bench and public road testing. The WHR system uses exhaust gas recuperation only and utilizes up to 110kW of exhaust waste heat for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in a typical European driving cycle. The testing and simulation procedures are explained in detail together with the tested and simulated WHR fuel consumption benefit for different real life cycles in Europe and USA reaching fuel consumption benefits between 2.5% and 3.4%. Additionally a technology road map is shown which discusses the role of WHR in fulfilling the future CARB BSFC target value (minimum in map) of around 172 g/kWh.
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