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Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0585
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

Three-Way Catalyst Light-off During the NEDC Test Cycle: Fully Coupled 0D/1D Simulation of Gasoline Combustion, Pollutant Formation and Aftertreatment Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1755
The introduction of more stringent standards for engine emissions requires a steady development of engine control strategies in combination with efforts to optimize in-cylinder combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment. With the goal of optimizing the overall emission performance this study presents the comprehensive simulation approach of a virtual vehicle model. A well established 1D gas dynamics and engine simulation model is extended by four key features. These are models for combustion and pollutant production in the cylinder, a model for the conversion of pollutants in a catalyst and a model for the effect of manifold wall wetting and fuel evaporation. The general species transport feature is linking these model together as it allows to transport an arbitrary number of chemical species in the entire system. Finally this highly detailed engine model is integrated into a vehicle model.
Technical Paper

Flame Visualisation in Standard SI-Engines - Results of a Tomographic Combustion Analysis

1997-02-24
970870
An optical sensor system provides access to standard SI engine combustion chambers via the cylinder head gasket. Flame radiation within the plane of the gasket is observed with optical fibers which are arranged to allow the tomographic reconstruction of flame distribution. The effect of convective in-cylinder air motion generated by variations of inlet ports and combustion chamber geometries on flame propagation is directly visible. A high degree of correlation between flame intensity distribution and NOx emission levels yields a useful assessment of combustion chamber configurations with minimum emission levels. The location of knock centers is identified.
Technical Paper

SI Engine Combustion and Knock Modelling Using Detailed Fuel Surrogate Models and Tabulated Chemistry

2019-04-02
2019-01-0205
In the context of today’s and future legislative requirements for NOx and soot particle emissions as well as today’s market trends for further efficiency gains in gasoline engines, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models need to further improve their intrinsic predictive capability to fulfill OEM needs towards the future. Improving fuel chemistry modelling, knock predictions and the modelling of the interaction between the chemistry and turbulent flow are three key challenges to improve the predictivity of CFD simulations of Spark-Ignited (SI) engines. The Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) combustion modelling approach addresses these challenges. By using chemistry pre-tabulation technologies, today’s most detailed fuel chemistry models can be included in the CFD simulation. This allows a much more refined description of auto-ignition delays for knock as well as radical concentrations which feed into emission models, at comparable or even reduced overall CFD run-time.
Technical Paper

About Describing the Knocking Combustion in Gasoline and Gas Engines by CFD Methods

2015-09-01
2015-01-1911
Spark ignited engines are today operated more and more often under high load conditions, where one reason can be identified in the necessity of increasing the efficiency and hence reducing fuel consumption and specific CO2 emissions. Since the gasoline engine operation is inherently limited by knocking at high loads, strategies must be identified, which allow reliable identification and simulation of the appearance of this undesirable type of combustion. A new numerical model for the description of those kinds of pre-flame reactions in a CFD framework is discussed in this paper. Despite emphasis is put here on the auto-ignition effects, it will also be explained that the model is capable of supporting the engine development process in all combustion and emission related aspects.
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