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Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

Three-Way Catalyst Light-off During the NEDC Test Cycle: Fully Coupled 0D/1D Simulation of Gasoline Combustion, Pollutant Formation and Aftertreatment Systems

The introduction of more stringent standards for engine emissions requires a steady development of engine control strategies in combination with efforts to optimize in-cylinder combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment. With the goal of optimizing the overall emission performance this study presents the comprehensive simulation approach of a virtual vehicle model. A well established 1D gas dynamics and engine simulation model is extended by four key features. These are models for combustion and pollutant production in the cylinder, a model for the conversion of pollutants in a catalyst and a model for the effect of manifold wall wetting and fuel evaporation. The general species transport feature is linking these model together as it allows to transport an arbitrary number of chemical species in the entire system. Finally this highly detailed engine model is integrated into a vehicle model.
Technical Paper

Ethanol Direct Injection on Turbocharged SI Engines - Potential and Challenges

In the past application of alternative fuels was mostly concentrated to special markets - e.g. for ethanol and ethanol blends Brazil or Sweden. Now an increasing sensitivity towards dependency on crude oil significantly enhances the interest in alternative fuels. With spark ignited engines, ethanol and gasoline / ethanol blends are the most promising alternative fuels - besides CNG. The high octane number of ethanol and the resulting excellent knock performance gives significant benefits, especially with highly boosted engines. However, the evaporation characteristics of ethanol result in challenges regarding cold start and oil dilution with GDI application. This paper deals with investigations on a turbocharged DI engine operated on ethanol fuel in order to improve challenges of ethanol fuel, such as oil dilution and cold start. Cold start can be improved by injecting fuel late in the compression stroke (high pressure start) based on a refined engine design and operation strategies.
Technical Paper

Dimethyl Ether as Fuel for CI Engines - A New Technology and its Environmental Potential

Dimethyl Ether has been proposed as alternative fuel for combustion engines. The paper gives a brief overview of resources, production, distribution and use of different automotive fuels and compares Dimethyl Ether with other oxygenated synthetic fuels recently proposed. For use in combustion engines Dimethyl Ether requires the introduction of new technologies, mainly in the field of fuel injection systems for direct injection. Such a fuel injection system is described in detail and measured characteristics are shown. For assessment of Dimethyl Ether from the environmental point of view, efficiencies and emissions during production and use of different fuels are summarized and discussed. For evaluation of environmental impacts a method is introduced which compares technical processes with natural cycles of substances and thus determines their “sustainability”.
Technical Paper

Production Feasible DME Technology for Direct Injection CI Engines

DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been shown to be a very attractive fuel for low emission direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engines. It combines the advantages of the high efficiencies of diesel cycle engines with soot free combustion. However, its greatest drawback is the need to develop new fuel injection and handling systems. Previous approaches have been common rail type injection systems which have shown great potential in reducing harmful exhaust emissions and achieving good engine performance and efficiency due to good control of both the fuel injection characteristics and temperature. The concept also has proven benefits with respect to convenient and safe fuel handling. The logical evolution of this concept simplifies the fuel system and avoids special components for DME handling such as high pressure rail pumps while retaining all the benefits of the common rail principle.
Technical Paper

The Performance of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with a Production Feasible DME Injection System

Over the last few years there has been much interest in DiMethyl Ether (DME) as an alternative fuel for diesel cycle engines. It combines the advantages of a high cetane number with soot free combustion, which makes it eminently suitable for compression ignition engines. However, due to the fact that it is a gas under ambient conditions, it requires special fuel handling and a specially designed fuel injection system, which until recently, was not available. The use of the digital hydraulic operating system (DHOS), combined with a fuel handling system designed to cope with the properties of DME, enables the fuel to be safely and conveniently handled, In addition, the flexibility of the injection system enables injection pressures to be chosen according to the needs of the combustion.
Technical Paper

ULEV Potential of a DI/TCI Diesel Passenger Car Engine Operated on Dimethyl Ether

The paper describes a feasibility test program on a 2 liter, 4 cylinder DI/TCI passenger car engine operated on the new alternative fuel Dimethyl Ether (DME, CH3 - O - CH3) with the aim of demonstrating its potential of meeting ULEV emissions (0.2 g/mi NOx in the FTP 75 test cycle) when installed in a full size passenger car. Special attention is drawn to the fuel injection equipment (FIE) as well as combustion system requirements towards the reduction of NOx and combustion noise while keeping energetic fuel consumption at the level of the baseline DI/TCI diesel engine. FIE and combustion system parameters were optimized on the steady state dynamometer by variation of a number of parameters, such as rate of injection, number of nozzle holes, compression ratio, piston bowl shape and exhaust gas recirculation.