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Technical Paper

Design impacts on CVS systems meeting future requirements for equivalent zero emissions vehicles

The latest legislation requires a dramatic reduction of motor vehicle exhaust emission. This is also a big challenge for emission measurement instrumentation, because of almost zero concentrations of certain components in the exhaust. For current measurement devices, which are recommended by the legislation, it is almost impossible to determine such low emission levels with adequate accuracy. The paper describes a new Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) system with reduced dilution, warming and quick flow rate changing capability. Possible solutions are discussed and the properties of data measured with test facilities which are prepared to cover S-ULEV and EURO IV applications are described. Also the selection of used materials is of rising importance. The tests were performed on a dynamic engine test bed which was equipped with such a CVS system and with emission analyzing systems for raw exhaust and diluted measurements.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a New Design for CVS-Systems Meeting the Requirements of S-ULEV and EURO IV

The latest legislation requires the automotive industry to once again reduce the emission levels of their latest vehicles. This leads to a new challenge in the field of emission measurement, because the concentrations of certain components of the exhaust gases are extremely low. For current measurement devices, which are recommended by the legislation, it is almost impossible to determine such low emission levels with the necessary accuracy. This study evaluates the features of an improved CVS system (Constant Volume Sampling) with the possibility of heating and the ability of changing flow rates quickly. Possible solutions are discussed and the properties of data measured with test facilities which are prepared to cover S-ULEV and EURO IV applications are described. The tests were performed on a dynamic engine test bed which was equipped with such a CVS system and with emission analyzing systems for raw exhaust and diluted measurements.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Solutions for Electrified Trucks and Buses

Local air pollution, noise emissions as well as global CO2 reduction and public pressure drive the need for zero emission transport solutions in urban areas. OEMs are currently developing battery electric vehicles with the focus to provide emission free urban transportation combined with lowest total cost of ownership and consequently a positive business case for the end customers. Thereby the main challenges are electric range, product cost, system weight, vehicle packaging and durability. Hence they are the main drivers in current developments. In this paper AVL describes two of its truck and bus solutions - a modular battery concept as well as a concept for an integrated electric axle. Based on the vehicle requirements concept designs for both systems are presented.
Technical Paper

Results, Assessment and Legislative Relevance of RDE and Fuel Consumption Measurements of Two-Wheeler-Applications

The reduction of environmentally harmful gases and the ambitions to reduce the exploitation of fossil resources lead to stricter legislation for all mobile sources. Legislative development significantly affected improvements in emissions and fuel consumptions over the last years, mainly measured under laboratory conditions. But real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and it is already well known that these values considerably differ from officially published figures [1]. There are regulated emissions by the European Commission by means of real driving scenarios for passenger cars. A methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is therefore well approved for automotive applications but was not adapted for two-wheeler-applications yet [2]. Hence measurements have been performed on-road and on chassis dynamometer for motorcycles with the state of the art RDE measurement equipment to be prepared for possible future legislation.
Technical Paper

Systematic Development of Hybrid Systems for Commercial Vehicles

The reduction of CO₂ emissions represents a major goal of governments worldwide. In developed countries, approximately 20% of the CO₂ emissions originate from transport, one third of this from commercial vehicles. CO₂ emission legislation is in place for passenger cars in a number of major markets. For commercial vehicles such legislation was also already partly published or is under discussion. Furthermore the commercial vehicles market is very cost sensitive. Thus the major share of fuel cost in the total cost of ownership of commercial vehicles was already in the past a major driver for the development of efficient drivetrain solutions. These aspects make the use of new powertrain technologies, specifically hybridization, mandatory for future commercial powertrains. While some technologies offer a greater potential for CO₂ reduction than others, they might not represent the overall optimum with regard to the total cost of ownership.
Technical Paper

A Novel Ultrasonic Intake Air Flow Meter for Test Bed Applications

The development process of a combustion engine is now a days strongly influenced by future emission regulations which require further reduction in fuel consumption and precise control of combustion process based on Intake air measurement, during engine development. Intake air flow meters clearly differentiate themselves from typical industrial gas flow meters because of their ability to measure extremely dynamic phenomenon of combustion engine. Thus, high internal data acquisition rate, short response time, ability to measure pulsating and reverse flows with lower measurement uncertainty are the factors that ensures the reliability of the results without being affected by ambient influences, sensor contamination or sensor aging. The AVL developed FLOWSONIX™ is based on ultrasonic transit time measuring principle with broad-band Capacitive Ultrasonic Transducer (CUT) characterized by an excellent air impedance matching strongly distinguishes itself by fulfilling all those requirements.
Journal Article

Sampling of Non-Volatile Vehicle Exhaust Particles: A Simplified Guide

Recently, a particle number (PN) limit was introduced in the European light-duty vehicles legislation. The legislation requires measurement of PN, and particulate mass (PM), from the full dilution tunnel with constant volume sampling (CVS). Furthermore, PN measurements will be introduced in the next stage of the European Heavy-Duty regulation. Heavy-duty engine certification can be done either from the CVS or from a partial flow dilution system (PFDS). For research and development purposes, though, measurements are often conducted from the raw exhaust, thereby avoiding the high installation costs of CVS and PFDS. Although for legislative measurements requirements exist regarding sampling and transport of the aerosol sample, such requirements do not necessarily apply for raw exhaust measurements. Thus, measurement differences are often observed depending on where in the experimental set up sampling occurs.
Technical Paper

OBD Algorithms: Model-based Development and Calibration

The OBD II and EOBD legislation have significantly increased the number of system components that have to be monitored in order to avoid emissions degradation. Consequently, the algorithm design and the related calibration effort is becoming more and more challenging. Because of decreasing OBD thresholds, the monitoring strategy accuracy, which is tightly related with the components tolerances and the calibration quality, has to be improved. A model-based offline simulation of the monitoring strategies allows consideration of component and sensor tolerances as well as a first calibration optimization in the early development phase. AVL applied and improved a methodology that takes into account this information, which would require a big effort using testbed or vehicle measurements. In many cases a component influence analysis is possible before hardware is available for testbed measurements.
Technical Paper

Get Connected - Advanced Combustion Analysis with AVL's Sensor Data Management

Today combustion analysis has to be used in every step of the engine development process and is no longer a tool for some specialists but most test bed operators have to deal with combustion analysis (also called Indicating). AVL reacts on the widened area of application and the broad spread of the Indicating measurement technology by introduction of user friendly user interfaces, which make the work during preparation of measurements as well as during measurements itself easier.
Technical Paper

Integrated Toolchain for Powertrain Optimization for Indian Commercial Vehicles

Best fuel efficiency is one of the core requirements for commercial vehicles in India. Consequently it is a central challenge for commercial vehicle OEMs to optimize the entire powertrain, hence match engine, transmission and rear axle specifications best to the defined application. The very specific real world driving conditions in India (e.g. traffic situations, road conditions, driver behavior, etc.) and the large number of possible commercial powertrain combinations request an efficient and effective development methodology. This paper presents a methodology and tool chain to specify and develop commercial powertrains in a most efficient and effective way. The methodology is based on the measurement of real world driving scenarios, identification of representative Real World Driving Profiles and vehicle system simulation which allows extended analysis of the road topography, the traffic situation as well as the driver behavior.
Journal Article

A Study on Operation Fluid Consumption for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Application using both, EGR and SCR

This paper describes a method for optimization of engine settings in view of best total cost of operation fluids. Under specific legal NOX tailpipe emissions requirements the engine out NOX can be matched to the current achievable SCR NOX conversion efficiency. In view of a heavy duty long haul truck application various specific engine operation modes are defined. A heavy duty diesel engine was calibrated for all operation modes in an engine test cell. The characteristics of engine operation are demonstrated in different transient test cycles. Optimum engine operation mode (EOM) selection strategies between individual engine operation modes are discussed in view of legal test cycles and real world driving cycles which have been derived from on-road tests.
Technical Paper

Automated Outlier Detection in Multidimensional Driveability Data Using AVL-DRIVE

With the increased number of variants, the preservation of a brand-specific vehicle DNA becomes more and more important. Paired with growing customer expectations, brand DNA can be a crucial point in the decision-making process of buying a new vehicle. Whereas the customer will assess the DNA subjectively during driving by evaluating the vehicle drive quality (“driveability”), most manufacturers are not merely relying on subjective evaluations by having test drivers perform maneuvers with prototype vehicles. Nowadays, the assessment is performed objectively during the vehicle development process. As a supporting measure, the Anstalt für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen List (AVL) has made the objective assessment tool AVL-DRIVE commercially available. Up to now, the AVL-DRIVE ratings had to be manually analyzed and checked for outliers. Low ratings and high deviations to a priori specified target values are a good starting point for the search of outliers.
Technical Paper

Objective Evaluation of Vehicle Driveability

Vehicle driveability evolves more and more as a key decisive factor for marketability and competitiveness of passenger cars, since the final decision of customers to buy a car is usually taken after a more or less intensive test drive. Car manufacturers currently evaluate vehicle driveability with subjective assessments and by having their experienced test drivers fill out form sheets. These assessments are time and cost intensive, limited in repeatability and not objective. The real customer requirements cannot be recognized in detail with this method. This paper describes a completely new approach for an objective and real time evaluation of relevant driveability criteria, for use in a vehicle and on a high dynamic test bed. The vehicle application enables an objective comparison between vehicles and an application as a development tool in many development and calibration phases, where ever fast and objective driveability results are required.