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Technical Paper

Study on Catalyzed-DPF for Improving the Continuous Regeneration Performance and Fuel Economy

2007-04-16
2007-01-0919
It is a big challenge how to satisfy both the purification of exhaust gas and the decrease of fuel penalty, that is, carbon-dioxide emission. Regarding the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) applied in the diesel after-treatment system, it must be effective for lowering the fuel penalty to prolong the interval and reduce the frequency of the DPF regeneration operation. This can be achieved by a DPF that has high Particulate Matter (PM) mass limit and high PM oxidation performance that is enough to regenerate the DPF continuously during the normal running operation. In this study, the examination of the pore structure of the wall of a DPF that could expand the continuous regeneration region in the engine operation map was carried out. Several porous materials with a wide range of pore structure were prepared and coated with a Mixed Oxide Catalyst (MOC). The continuous regeneration performance was evaluated under realistic conditions in the exhaust of a diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Wall-scale Reaction Models in Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1130
Following the successful market introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), this class of emission control devices is expanding to include additional functionalities such as gas species oxidation (such as CO, HC and NO), storage phenomena (such as NOx and NH3 storage) to the extent that we should today refer not to DPFs but to Multifunctional Reactor Separators. This trend poses many challenges for the modeling of such systems since the complexity of the coupled reaction and transport phenomena makes any direct general numerical approach to require unacceptably high computing times. These multi-functionalities are urgently needed to be incorporated into system level emission control simulation tools in a robust and computationally efficient manner. In the present paper we discuss a new framework and its application for the computationally efficient implementation of such phenomena.
Technical Paper

Soot Oxidation Kinetics in Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1129
Direct catalytic soot oxidation is expected to become an important component of future diesel particulate emission control systems. The development of advanced Catalytic Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs relies on the interplay of chemistry and geometry in order to enhance soot-catalyst proximity. An extensive set of well-controlled experiments has been performed to provide direct catalytic soot oxidation rates in CDPFs employing small-scale side-stream sample exposure. The experiments are analyzed with a state-of-the-art diesel particulate filter simulator and a set of kinetic parameters are derived for direct catalytic soot oxidation by fuel-borne catalysts as well as by catalytic coatings. The influence of soot-catalyst proximity, on catalytic soot oxidation is found to be excellently described by the so-called Two-Layer model, developed previously by the authors.
Technical Paper

Study on the Filter Structure of SiC-DPF with Gas Permeability for Emission Control

2005-04-11
2005-01-0578
The pore structure of DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) is one of the key factors in contributing the fuel consumption and the emission control performance of a vehicle. The pressure loss of mini samples (1 in. in diameter, 2 in. in length) with various pore structures was measured at relatively low filtration velocity (< 5 cm/sec). Then the obtained data were evaluated by using an index of “permeability”. As a result, among the parameters which characterize the pore structure, it was found that the size of the pore diameter and the sharpness of pore distribution were the most contributing factors in reducing pressure loss which in turn is related to the fuel consumption performance when the cell structure was fixed. On the other hand, it was found that the gas permeability was not affected significantly by any parameter when the catalyst was coated because the coating caused a broadening of the pore distribution.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Filter Systems with Direct and Indirect Soot Oxidation Activity

2005-04-11
2005-01-0670
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) need to be periodically regenerated in order to achieve efficient and safe vehicle operation. Under typical diesel exhaust conditions, this invariably requires the raising of the exhaust gas temperature by active means, up to the point that particulate (soot) oxidation can be self-sustained in the filter. In the present work the development path of an advanced catalytic filter technology is presented. Full scale optimized Catalytic Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs) are tested in the exhaust of a light-duty modern diesel engine in line with a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). The management of the DOC-CDPF emission control system is facilitated by a virtual soot sensor in order to ensure energy-efficient operation of the emission control system.
Technical Paper

Advanced Catalyst Coatings for Diesel Particulate Filters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0483
Novel catalytic coatings with a variety of methods based on conventional and novel synthesis routes are developed for Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). The developed catalytic composition exhibits significant direct soot oxidation as evaluated by reacting mixtures of diesel soot and catalyst powders in a thermogravimetric analysis apparatus (TGA). The catalyst composition was further deposited on oxide and non-oxide porous filter structures that were evaluated on an engine bench with respect to their filtration efficiency, pressure drop behavior and direct soot oxidation activity under realistic conditions. The effect of the catalyst amount on the filtration efficiency of non-oxide filters was also investigated. Evaluation of the indirect soot oxidation was conducted on non-oxide catalytic filters coated with precious metal.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for the Fast Evaluation of the Effect of Ash Aging on the Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-0630
Establishing a certain maintenance-free time period regarding modern diesel exhaust emission control systems is of major importance nowadays. One of the most serious problems Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) manufacturers face concerning system's durability is the performance deterioration due to the filter aging because of the accumulation of the ash particles. The evaluation of the effect of the ash aging on the filter performance is a time and cost consuming task that slows down the process of manufacturing innovative filter structures and designs. In this work we present a methodology for producing filter samples aged by accumulating ash produced by the controlled pyrolysis of oil-fuel solutions. Such ash particles bear morphological (size) and compositional similarity to ash particles collected from engine aged DPFs. The ash particles obtained are compared to those from real engine operation.
Technical Paper

Microstructural Properties of Soot Deposits in Diesel Particulate Traps

2002-03-04
2002-01-1015
As demand for wall-flow Diesel particulate filters (DPF) increases, accurate predictions of DPF behavior, and in particular of the accumulated soot mass, under a wide range of operating conditions become important. This effort is currently hampered by a lack of a systematic knowledge of the accumulated particulate deposit microstructural properties. In this work, an experimental and theoretical study of the growth process of soot cakes in honeycomb ceramic filters is presented. Particular features of the present work are the application of first- principles measurement and simulation methodology for accurate determination of soot cake packing density and permeability, and their systematic dependence on the filter operating conditions represented by the Peclet number for mass transfer. The proposed measurement methodology has been also validated using various filters on different Diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Study of a Sintered Metal Diesel Particulate Trap

2005-04-11
2005-01-0968
This paper describes work supporting the development of a new Diesel particulate trap system for heavy duty vehicles based on porous sintered metal materials that exhibit interesting characteristics with respect to ash tolerance. Experimental data characterizing the material (permeability, soot and ash deposit properties) are obtained in a dedicated experimental setup in the side-stream of a modern Diesel engine as well as in an accelerated ash loading rig. System level simulations coupling the new media characteristics to 3-D CFD software for the optimization of complete filter systems are then performed and comparative assessment results of example designs are given.
Technical Paper

A Selective Particle Size Sampler Suitable for Biological Exposure Studies of Diesel Particulate

2006-04-03
2006-01-1075
The objective of this study is the design, construction and evaluation of a Selective Particle Size (SPS) sampler able to provide continuous delivery of diesel soot particles of specific size ranges. The design of the sampler combines principles of aerosol transport phenomena and separation technologies. Particles smaller than a given size are removed from the exhaust by diffusional deposition, while removal of particles above a given size is achieved by low pressure inertial impaction. The main application of the developed sampler is the exposure of biological samples such as cell and tissue cultures to selected sizes of diesel exhaust particles. By applying the SPS sampler to diesel exhaust it is demonstrated that it is possible to obtain two aerosol streams with widely separated particle size distributions (of nanometric dimensions), suitable for biological exposure studies.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Reactor Assembly for Screening of Diesel Particulate Filters

2006-04-03
2006-01-0874
In this paper a fast DPF screening procedure is proposed using small-scale filter samples of different technologies in a well-controlled environment but under realistic engine exhaust conditions. The DPF samples are evaluated in a specially built Multi-Reactor Assembly (MRA) with respect to their flow resistance, filtration efficiency, soot loading behavior, soot oxidation behavior, as well as their ash induced ageing behavior.
Technical Paper

The Optimum Cell Density for Wall-Flow Monolithic Filters: Effects of Filter Permeability, Soot Cake Structure and Ash Loading

2004-03-08
2004-01-1133
A major challenge in the development of diesel filter systems is the selection of the appropriate filter medium in terms of its geometric configuration (cell density, wall thickness) and its physical properties (porosity, pore size). This selection aims to achieve minimization of the filter pressure drop as well as more efficient filter regeneration. The aim of the present work is to provide engineering criteria to support the design and selection of suitably sized wall-flow monolithic filters for diesel particulate control.
Technical Paper

Microstructural Aspects of Soot Oxidation in Diesel Particulate Filters

2004-03-08
2004-01-0693
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) behavior depends strongly on the microstructural properties of the deposited soot aggregates. In the past the issue of the growth process of soot deposits in honeycomb ceramic filters has been addressed under non-reactive conditions and the influence of the filter operating conditions has been defined in terms of the dimensionless Peclet number. In the present work appropriate soot cake microstructural descriptors are studied under reactive conditions for different oxidation modes. To this end the effect of deposit microstructure on the soot oxidation kinetics is investigated. Different microstructural models for the reacting soot deposit are examined in a unified fashion and a generalized constitutive equation is obtained, describing several modes of microstructure evolution (shrinking layer, shrinking density, discrete columnar and continuous columnar).
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