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Technical Paper

Accurate Measurements of Heat Release, Oxidation Rates, and Soluble Organic Compounds of Diesel Particulates through Thermal Reactions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0814
In an effort of providing better understanding of regeneration mechanisms of diesel particulate matter (PM), this experimental investigation focused on evaluating the amount of heat release generated during the thermal reaction of diesel PM and the concentrations of soluble organic compounds (SOCs) dissolved in PM emissions. Differences in oxidation behaviors were observed for two different diesel PM samples: a SOC-containing PM sample and a dry soot sample with no SOCs. Both samples were collected from a cordierite particulate filter membrane in a thermal reactor connected to the exhaust pipe of a light-duty diesel engine. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to measure the amount of heat release during oxidation, along with subsequent oxidation rates and the concentrations of SOCs dissolved in particulate samples, respectively.
Technical Paper

Instantaneously Optimized Controller for a Multimode Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0816
A multimode transmission combines several power-split modes and possibly several fixed gear modes, thanks to complex arrangements of planetary gearsets, clutches and electric motors. Coupled to a battery, it can be used in a highly flexible hybrid configuration, which is especially practical for larger cars. The Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid is the first light-duty vehicle featuring such a system. This paper introduces the use of a high-level vehicle controller based on instantaneous optimization to select the most appropriate mode for minimizing fuel consumption under a broad range of vehicle operating conditions. The control uses partial optimization: the engine ON/OFF and the battery power demand regulating the battery state-of-charge are decided by a rule-based logic; the transmission mode as well as the operating points are chosen by an instantaneous optimization module that aims at minimizing the fuel consumption at each time step.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Transaxle Synchronization Control Design

2010-04-12
2010-01-0817
This paper covers the development of a closed loop transaxle synchronization algorithm which was a key deliverable in the control system design for the L3 Enigma, a Battery Dominant Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Background information is provided to help the reader understand the history that lead to this unique solution of the input and output shaft synchronizing that typically takes place in a manual vehicle transmission or transaxle when shifting into a gear from another or into a gear from neutral when at speed. The algorithm stability is discussed as it applies to system stability and how stability impacts the speed at which a shift can take place. Results are simulated in The MathWorks Simulink programming environment and show how traction motor technology can be used to efficiently solve what is often a machine design issue. The vehicle test bed to which this research is applied is a parallel biodiesel hybrid electric vehicle called the Enigma.
Technical Paper

Near-Nozzle Structure of Diesel Sprays Affected by Internal Geometry of Injector Nozzle: Visualized by Single-Shot X-ray Imaging

2010-04-12
2010-01-0877
By taking advantage of high-intensity and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), ultrafast (150 ps) propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed to visualize high-pressure high-speed diesel sprays in the optically dense near-nozzle region. The sub-ns temporal and μm spatial resolution allows us to capture the morphology of the high-speed fuel sprays traveling at 500 m/s with a negligible motion blur. Both quality and quantitative information about the spray feature can be readily obtained. In the experiment, two types of single-hole nozzles have been used, one with a hydroground orifice inlet and the other with a sharp one. Within 3 mm from the nozzle, the sprays from these nozzles behave differently, ranging from laminar flow with surface instability waves to turbulent flow. The sprays are correlated with the nozzle internal geometry, which provides practical information for both nozzle design and supporting numerical simulation models.
Journal Article

Assessment of Multiple Injection Strategies in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1920
Hydrogen is widely considered a promising fuel for future transportation applications for both, internal combustion engines and fuel cells. Due to their advanced stage of development and immediate availability hydrogen combustion engines could act as a bridging technology towards a wide-spread hydrogen infrastructure. Although fuel cell vehicles are expected to surpass hydrogen combustion engine vehicles in terms of efficiency, the difference in efficiency might not be as significant as widely anticipated [1]. Hydrogen combustion engines have been shown capable of achieving efficiencies of up to 45 % [2]. One of the remaining challenges is the reduction of nitric oxide emissions while achieving peak engine efficiencies. This paper summarizes research work performed on a single-cylinder hydrogen direct injection engine at Argonne National Laboratory.
Technical Paper

Parametric Examination of Filtration Processes in Diesel Particulate Filter Membranes with Channel Structure Modification

2010-04-12
2010-01-0537
The limited spatial area in conventional diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems requires frequent regenerations to remove collected particulate matter (PM) emissions, consequently resulting in higher energy consumption and potential material failure. Due to the complex geometry and difficulty in access to the internal structure of diesel particulate filters, in addition, many important characteristics in filtration processes remain unknown. In this work, therefore, the geometry of DPF membrane channels was modified basically to increase the filtration areas, and their filtration characteristics were evaluated in terms of pressure drop across the DPF membranes, effects of soot loading on pressure drop, and qualitative soot mass distribution in the membrane channels. In this evaluation, an analytical model was developed for pressure drop, which allowed a parametric study with those modified membranes.
Journal Article

Real-World Thermal Effects on Wheel Assembly Efficiency of Conventional and Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0236
Abstract It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures negatively impact vehicle system efficiency. This is due to a combination of factors: increased friction (engine oil, transmission, and driveline viscous effects), cold start enrichment, heat transfer, and air density variations. Although the science of quantifying steady-state vehicle component efficiency is mature, transient component efficiencies over dynamic ambient real-world conditions is less understood and quantified. This work characterizes wheel assembly efficiencies of a conventional and electric vehicle over a wide range of ambient conditions. For this work, the wheel assembly is defined as the tire side axle spline, spline housing, bearings, brakes, and tires. Dynamometer testing over hot and cold ambient temperatures was conducted with a conventional and electric vehicle instrumented to determine the output energy losses of the wheel assembly in proportion to the input energy of the half-shafts.
Technical Paper

Application of PHEV Fractional Utility Factor Weighting to EcoCAR On-Road Emissions and Energy Consumption Testing

2016-04-05
2016-01-1180
Abstract EcoCAR is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and General Motors, and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. In the last competition series, EcoCAR 2, fifteen university teams from across North America were challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. This paper examines the results of the EcoCAR 2 competition’s emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) on-road test results for several prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The official results for each vehicle are presented along with brief descriptions of the hybrid architectures.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fast Charging of Lithium-Ion Cells: Performance and Post-Test Results

2016-04-05
2016-01-1194
Abstract The effect of charge rate was determined using constant-current (CC) and the USABC Fast-Charge (FC) tests on commercial lithium-ion cells. Charging at high rates caused performance decline in the cells. Representing the resistance data as ΔR vs. Rn-1 plots was shown to be a viable method to remove the ambiguity inherent in the time-based analyses of the data. Comparing the ΔR vs. Rn-1 results, the change in resistance was proportional to charge rate in both the CC and FC cell data, with the FC cells displaying a greater rate of change. Changes, such as delamination, at the anode were seen in both CC and FC cells. The amount of delamination was proportional to charge rate in the CC cells. No analogous trend was seen in the FC cells; extensive delamination was seen in all cases. These changes may be due to the interaction of processes, such as lithium plating and i2R heating.
Technical Paper

Potential Cost Savings of Combining Power and Energy Batteries in a BEV 300

2016-04-05
2016-01-1213
Abstract Present-day battery technologies support a battery electric vehicle with a 300mile range (BEV 300), but the cost of such a vehicle hinders its large-scale adoption by consumers. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set aggressive cost targets for battery technologies. At present, no single technology meets the cost, energy, and power requirements of a BEV 300, but a combination of multiple batteries with different capabilities might be able to lower the overall cost closer to the DOE target. This study looks at how such a combination can be implemented in vehicle simulation models and compares the vehicle manufacturing and operating costs to a baseline BEV 300. Preliminary analysis shows an opportunity to modestly reduce BEV 300 energy storage system cost by about 8% using a battery pack that combines an energy and power battery. The baseline vehicle considered in the study uses a single battery sized to meet both the power and energy requirements of a BEV 300.
Technical Paper

Critical Factors in the Development of Well-To-Wheel Analyses of Alternative Fuel and Advanced Powertrain Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1284
Abstract A heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) module of the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been published extensively and contains data on fuel-cycles and vehicle operation of light-duty vehicles. The addition of the HDV module to the GREET model allows for well-to-wheel (WTW) analyses of heavy-duty advanced technology and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which has been lacking in the literature. WTW analyses of HDVs becomes increasingly important to understand the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of newly enacted and future HDV regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Evolution of In- and Near-Nozzle Regions of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine During Needle Transients

2016-04-05
2016-01-0870
Abstract This work involves modeling internal and near-nozzle flows of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) nozzle. The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G condition has been considered for these simulations using the nominal geometry of the Spray G injector. First, best practices for numerical simulation of the two-phase flow evolution inside and the near-nozzle regions of the Spray G injector are presented for the peak needle lift. The mass flow rate prediction for peak needle lift was in reasonable agreement with experimental data available in the ECN database. Liquid plume targeting angle and liquid penetration estimates showed promising agreement with experimental observations. The capability to assess the influence of different thermodynamic conditions on the two-phase flow nature was established by predicting non-flashing and flashing phenomena.
Journal Article

Time-Resolved X-Ray Radiography of Spark Ignition Plasma

2016-04-05
2016-01-0640
Abstract Understanding the short-lived structure of the plasma that forms between the electrodes of a spark plug is crucial to the development of improved ignition models for SI engines. However, measuring the amount of energy deposited in the gas directly and non-intrusively is difficult, due to the short time scales and small length scales involved. The breakdown of the spark gap occurs at nanosecond time scales, followed by an arc phase lasting a few microseconds. Finally, a glow discharge phase occurs over several milliseconds. It is during the arc and glow discharge phases that most of the heat transfer from the plasma to the electrodes and combustion gases occurs. Light emission can be used to measure an average temperature, but micron spatial resolution is required to make localized measurements.
Technical Paper

Integration of Vehicle Performance and Fuel Economy Software with Military Ground Vehicle Mission Assessment Tools

2016-04-05
2016-01-0314
Abstract A simulation approach is defined that integrates a military mission assessment tool (One Semi-Automated Forces) with a commercial automotive control/energy consumption development tool (Autonomie). The objective is to enable vehicle energy utilization and fuel consumption impact assessments relative to US Army mission effectiveness and commercial drive cycles. The approach to this integration will be described, along with its potential to meet its objectives.
Technical Paper

Computing Statistical Averages from Large Eddy Simulation of Spray Flames

2016-04-05
2016-01-0585
Abstract The primary strength of large eddy simulation (LES) is in directly resolving the instantaneous large-scale flow features which can then be used to study critical flame properties such as ignition, extinction, flame propagation and lift-off. However, validation of the LES results with experimental or direct numerical simulation (DNS) datasets requires the determination of statistically-averaged quantities. This is typically done by performing multiple realizations of LES and performing a statistical averaging among this sample. In this study, LES of n-dodecane spray flame is performed using a well-mixed turbulent combustion model along with a dynamic structure subgrid model. A high-resolution mesh is employed with a cell size of 62.5 microns in the entire spray and combustion regions. The computational cost of each calculation was in the order of 3 weeks on 200 processors with a peak cell count of about 22 million at 1 ms.
Journal Article

On-Road and Dynamometer Evaluation of Vehicle Auxiliary Loads

2016-04-05
2016-01-0901
Abstract Laboratory and on-road vehicle evaluation is conducted on four vehicle models to evaluate and characterize the impacts to fuel economy of real-world auxiliary loads. The four vehicle models in this study include the Volkswagen Jetta TDI, Mazda 3 i-ELOOP, Chevrolet Cruze Diesel, and Honda Civic GX (CNG). Four vehicles of each model are included in this; sixteen vehicles in total. Evaluation was conducted using a chassis dynamometer over standard drive cycles as well as twelve months of on-road driving across a wide range of road and environmental conditions. The information gathered in the study serves as a baseline to quantify future improvements in auxiliary load reduction technology.
Journal Article

Gaseous and Particulate Emissions Using Isobutanol-Extended Fuel in Recreational Marine Two-Stroke and Four-Stroke Engines

2014-11-11
2014-32-0087
Abstract Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to increase biofuel quantities beyond the current ethanol blend wall. When blended at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on two open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke and four-stroke designs using indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified using Sohxlet extraction to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Data indicates a reduction in overall total particulate matter relative to indolene certification fuel with similar trends between iB16 and E10. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16, relative to E10, could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems.
Technical Paper

Air-to-Fuel Ratio Calculation Methods for Oxygenated Fuels in Two-Stroke Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0965
Abstract In 1990, Roy Douglas developed an analytical method to calculate the global air-to-fuel ratio of a two-stroke engine from exhaust gas emissions. While this method has considerable application to two-stroke engines, it does not permit the calculation of air-to-fuel ratios for oxygenated fuels. This study proposed modifications to the Roy Douglas method such that it can be applied to oxygenated fuels. The ISO #16183 standard, the modified Spindt method, and the Brettschneider method were used to evaluate the modifications to the Roy Douglas method. In addition, a trapped air-to-fuel ratio, appropriate for two-stroke engines, was also modified to incorporate oxygenated fuels. To validate the modified calculation method, tests were performed using a two-stroke carbureted and two-stroke direct injected marine outboard engine over a five-mode marine test cycle running indolene and low level blends of ethanol and iso-butanol fuels.
Technical Paper

Impact of Advanced Engine and Powertrain Technologies on Engine Operation and Fuel Consumption for Future Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0978
Abstract Near-term advances in spark ignition (SI) engine technology (e.g., variable value lift [VVL], gasoline direct injection [GDI], cylinder deactivation, turbo downsizing) for passenger vehicles hold promise of delivering significant fuel savings for vehicles of the immediate future. Similarly, trends in transmissions indicate higher (8-speed, 9-speed) gear numbers, higher spans, and a focus on downspeeding to improve engine efficiency. Dual-clutch transmissions, which exhibit higher efficiency in lower gears, than the traditional automatics, and are being introduced in the light-duty vehicle segment worldwide. Another development requiring low investment and delivering immediate benefits has been the adaptation of start-stop (micro hybrids or idle engine stop technology) technology in vehicles today.
Journal Article

Quantification of Shot-to-Shot Variation in Single Hole Diesel Injectors

2015-04-14
2015-01-0936
Abstract Recent advancements in x-ray radiography diagnostics for direct injection sprays at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source have allowed absorption measurements of individual spray events, in addition to ensemble-averaged measurements. These measurements offer insight into the shot-to-shot variation of these sprays in the near-nozzle, spray formation region. Three single hole diesel injectors are studied across various injection and ambient pressures, spanning 14 different conditions. We calculated two dimensional maps of the standard deviation in line of sight mass distribution between individual spray events. These illuminated the spatial and temporal extent of variability between spray events. Regions of large fluctuations were observed to move downstream during the initial spray period and reached a steady state location after this initial transient.
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