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Technical Paper

Evolution of Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engines - Stoichiometric, Carbureted and Spark Ignited to Lean Burn, Fuel Injected and Micro-Pilot

Natural gas is a low cost, abundant and clean burning fuel. Current internal combustion engines can be readily adapted to use natural gas fuel either in conjunction with conventional liquid fuels or as dedicated systems. Use of modern electronic controls allows consideration of new engine management strategies that are not practical or even possible with mechanical systems. The preferred approach is pre-mixed lean burn with cylinder-by-cylinder fuel injection and full time control of optimized air/fuel ratio and ignition.
Technical Paper

Development of Pilot Fuel Injection System for CNG Engine

The paper discusses objectives, approaches and results of the development of a pilot fuel injection system (FIS) for a dedicated, compression ignition, high-speed, heavy duty natural gas/diesel engine. The performance of the pilot FIS is crucial for the success of a dual fuel concept. The Servojet electro-hydraulic, accumulator type fuel system was chosen for the pilot fuel injection. An alternative pilot FIS based on the “water hammer” (WH) effect was also considered. The modifications to a stock 17 min injector is described. Three different types of pilot injector nozzle were investigated: standard Valve Covered Orifice (VCO), modified minisac and new designed, unthrottled pintle. Preliminary results from engine tests proved that the optimum pilot fuel quantity is the minimum quantity. Based on that finding, the pilot FIS design was further optimized.
Technical Paper

Methods and Results from the Development of a 2600 Bar Diesel Fuel Injection System

An ultrahigh injection pressure, common rail fuel injection system was designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The result was a system suitable for high-power density diesel engine applications. The main advantages of the concept are a very short injection duration capability, high injection pressure independent of engine speed, a simplified electronic control valve, and good packaging flexibility. Two prototype injectors were developed. Tests were performed on an injector flow bench and in a single cylinder research engine. The first prototype delivered 320 mm3 within 2.5 milliseconds with a 2600 bar peak injection pressure. A conventional minisac nozzle was used. The second prototype employed a specially designed pintle nozzle producing a near-zero cone angle liquid jet impinging on a 9-mm cylindrical target centered on the piston bowl crown (OSKA-S system). The second prototype had the capability to deliver 316mm3 in 0.97ms.
Technical Paper

Direct Digital Control of Electronic Unit Injectors

A new type of diesel fuel injection uses a simple, medium-pressure, common-rail system with pressure intensifier and accumulator type unit injectors with digital electronic control to achieve high performance at low cost. The desirable features of high injection pressures with quantity and timing controlled directly by microprocessor are attained with a simple unique system. Data are presented on performance, efficiency, emissions, and relative cost. It is concluded that electronically controlled high pressure injection offers a practical and economical solution for efficient combustion in a diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Electronic Direct Fuel Injection (EDFI) for Small Two-Stroke Engines

The benefits of direct cylinder fuel injection to the fuel economy and exhaust emissions of small spark ignited two-stroke engines is well known. The selection of a commercially viable fuel injection solution continues to receive evaluation and scrutiny by the engine manufacturers. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an EDFI solution which is applicable to low cost and high production volume engines in several industries. The system is based on the “accumulator” fuel injection operating principle, which involves pressurizing fuel within an injection nozzle and subsequently releasing the pressurized fuel into the combustion chamber on command. This concept provides very short injection duration throughout the dynamic operating range of the engine as well as high injection frequency capability.
Technical Paper

All Electronic Dual Fuel Injection System for the Belarus D-144 Diesel Engine

Through the joint efforts of BKM, SPI, AFS and Belarus, an advanced, all- electronic dual fuel system has been developed for retrofit applications on the Belarus D-144, four-cylinder, 4.15 liter, 44.7 KW diesel engine. The system features all electronic control on both full diesel or up to 90 % gas with automatic and instant changeover capability. The existing mechanical diesel injection system was replaced with an all electronic, hydraulically actuated, diesel injection system coupled with timed multi-point electronic injection for the gas system. The control strategy does not utilize inlet throttling typically used on gas fueled engines. The effectiveness of this simplified control system is assumed to be the result of a degree of charge stratification. The D-144 engine is utilized in a wide variety of industrial, farm and highway applications. Special application requirements can be accommodated by programming the EPROM control chip.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection on Diesel Combustion

Additional data has been analyzed on the effect of engine size on thermal efficiency. The comparison has been expanded to show the trends separately for engines developed by several different manufacturers. The data confirm the conclusion that engines below 2.0 liters per cylinder seem to deteriorate in fuel economy faster than would have been predicted from the behavior of larger engines. It is postulated that such deterioration results from a combination of less than optimum fuel spray, wall wetting, and perhaps a greater heat transfer loss than was anticipated. The paper focuses on engines in the size range under two liters per cylinder and addresses some of the problems to be resolved. Means for generating and controlling fuel spray and injection rate shape are presented along with experimental data on fuel sprays and engine combustion.
Technical Paper

Extending Lean Limit with Mass-Timed Compression Ignition Using a Catalytic Plasma Torch

Research on the Catalytic Plasma Torch (CPT) ignition system was conducted this last year at BKM, Inc. in San Diego. The results showed that under certain conditions CPT can not only time ignition properly, but also extend the lean stability limit. This concept is based upon compression ignition of the charge in the CPT's integral pre-chamber. Compression ignition is induced by timed catalytic reduction of the pre-chamber's activation energy. This produces almost instantaneous combustion in the pre-chamber and is divided into multiple high velocity torches to rapidly ignite the main chamber charge. The timing of the ignition event is based on the location of the heated catalyst in the pre-chamber and the mass of the charge inducted into the cylinder. The base timing curve can be modified via current control which effects the catalyst activity. Dynamic modification of the timing event is accomplished by using the catalyst as an in-cylinder hot wire anemometer.
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Lean-Burn 4.3 Liter Natural Gas Engine

The need for a natural gas conversion kit for heavy-duty engines which provides equivalent gasoline performance as well as acceptable exhaust emissions has prompted the use of turbocharged lean-burn engine technology. Turbocharged lean-burn strategy allows operation which meets current heavy-duty emission requirements without the need for a catalytic converter. To insure proper fuel distribution during lean-burn operation, the system includes multi-point sequential fuel injection, fully mapped lambda control, deceleration fuel cut-off, part load cylinder deactivation, and fuel charge stratification. This paper documents the design and development of a General Motors turbocharged, sequential fuel injected, leanburn natural gas engine based on the 4.3L truck engine.
Technical Paper

Electronic Direct Fuel Injection System Applied to an 1100cc Two-Stroke Personal Watercraft Engine

Direct injection has been considered the most effective approach to overcome the inherent short-circuiting of fuel in a two-stroke engine. A practical application of this technology on an 1100cc personal watercraft (PWC) engine is described. The experimental results show a drastic improvement in the engine emissions and fuel economy while maintaining good output performance and drive-ability of the PWC tested. The all-electronic, direct fuel injection engine has demonstrated a 76.3% reduction in hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and 43.03 g/kW-h HC plus oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. This HC + NOx level meets the emission standards applicable to the 2006 model year set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for new gasoline spark-ignition marine engines. Finally some considerations on extending the technology to include combustion control in the areas of both air and spark management, are recommended.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Common Rail, Hydraulically Intensified Diesel Fuel Injection System Concepts and Rate Shapes

Hydraulically intensified medium pressure common rail (MPCR) electronic fuel injection systems are an attractive concept for heavy-duty diesel engine applications. They offer excellent packaging flexibility and thorough engine management system integration. Two different concepts were evaluated in this study. They are different in how the pressure generation and injection events are related. One used a direct principle, where the high-pressure generation and injection events occur simultaneously producing a near square injection rate profile. Another concept was based on an indirect principle, where potential energy (pressure) is first stored inside a hydraulic accumulator, and then released during injection, as a subsequent event. A falling rate shape is typically produced in this case. A unit pump, where the hydraulic intensifier is separated from the injector by a high-pressure line, and a unit injector design are considered for both concepts.
Technical Paper

Optimized E.F.I. for Natural Gas Fueled Engines

Increasing emphasis on natural gas as a clean, economical, and abundant fuel, encourages the search for the optimum approach to management of fuel, air and combustion to achieve the best results in power, fuel economy and low exhaust emissions. Electronic injection of fuel directly into the throttle body, intake ports or directly into the cylinder offers important advantages over carburetion or mixing valves. This is particularly true in the case of installations in which the gas supply is available at several atmospheres pressure above maximum intake manifold pressure. The use of choked-flow pulse- width-modulated electronic injectors offers precision control over the engine operating range with a wide variety of options for both stoichiometric and lean bum applications. A complete system utilizing commercially available components together with the application, calibration and engine mapping techniques is described.
Technical Paper

Electronic Fuel Injection for Dual Fuel Diesel Methane

An electronic fuel injection system for diesel engines has been adapted for dual fuel applications. The simplified and commercially practical system capitalizes on using standardized hardware and software modified for the dual fuel conversion kit Using the conventional diesel pump for pilot injection, electronic injectors provide timed pulses of gas for each cylinder. The system has been successfully applied to both naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions of the Mercedes OM-352 diesel engine and has been placed in service in transit bus applications. Performance data shows over 90% displacement of diesel fuel with the same power and fuel economy as the base diesel engine. Initial reports from the field indicate excellent performance and drivability as well as smoke-free exhaust when in the dual fuel mode.