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BMW Technology/Strategy Regarding EV

The BMW Group has introduced electric cars to the market with the MINI E already in 2009. The next step will be the launch of the BMW ActiveE in 2011, followed by the revolutionary Mega City Vehicle in 2013. The presentation will explain the BMW Group strategy for implementing sustainable mobility. A focus will be emobility, the use of carbon fiber and the holistic sustainability approach of BMW Group?s project i. Reference will be made to the research results of the MINI E projects in the US and in Europe. Presenter Andreas Klugescheid, BMW AG
Technical Paper

New Acoustic Test Facilities of BMW

BMW has introduced new test stands for noise measurements on passenger cars and motorcycles. Information is given on room conditions, machinery equipment, sound levels, frequency ranges and types of measurement. The semi-anechoic room is designed for measuring the sound distribution emitted by a single vehicle. Road influence is simulated by a reflecting floor and a roller-dynamometer. The free field sound distribution in terms of distance and direction is measured in the anechoic room. This room has high-precision installations for sound source identification and noise mapping. The reverberation room serves to measure sound power emitted by the test object. Its second purpose is to subject the bodywork to a high-power external sound source and to measure the sound-deadening effect of the passenger compartment. In conclusion, the presentation provides reports on the initial experience with these test facilities.
Technical Paper

Tire and Car Contribution and Interaction to Low Frequency Interior Noise

A joint study was conducted between BMW and Goodyear with the objective of analysing the cause and identifying methods to reduce the structure-borne interior noise in a vehicle driving on rough road surfaces. A vibro-acoustic characterization of the car was performed by measuring the car vibro-acoustic transfer functions and by using a transfer path analysis technique to identify the main suspension parts affecting the interior noise at target frequencies. The vibration transmissibility characteristics of the tire were measured and also simulated by Finite Element in [1-200Hz] frequency range. The vibro-acoustic interaction between the tire and car sub-systems was examined. A Finite Element sensitivity analysis was used to define and build new prototype tires. A 3dB(A) interior noise improvement was obtained with these new tires at target frequencies.
Technical Paper

Media Oriented Systems Transport (MOST®) standard for multimedia networks in automobiles

The automakers that comprise MOST® describe the reasons for this decision. First, they present the automobile industry's needs relative to multimedia networks in vehicles. Then, they present the different aspects of the MOST® technology. Multimedia networks are used in the electronics market, but they do not meet the technical and industrial constraints of the automobile electronics, which is why six automakers are working on most technology under the aegis of ""Most Cooperation.'' The transmission rate is a decisive aspect in the selection of a multimedia network. The rate of sound and video applications require fiber optics. The multimedia network rate must be adequate for a vehicle equipped with the maximum number of options, but the maximum rate is limited by the number of passengers.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations and Computations of Unsteady Flow Past a Real Car Using a Robust Elliptic Relaxation Closure with a Universal Wall Treatment

In the present work we investigated experimentally and computationally the unsteady flow around a BMW car model including wheels*. This simulation yields mean flow and turbulence fields, enabling the study aerodynamic coefficients (drag and lift coefficients, three-dimensional/spatial wall-pressure distribution) as well as some unsteady flow phenomena in the car wake (analysis of the vortex shedding frequency). Comparisons with experimental findings are presented. The computational approach used is based on solving the complete transient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (TRANS) equations. Special attention is devoted to turbulence modelling and the near-wall treatment of turbulence. The flow calculations were performed using a robust, eddy-viscosity-based ζ - ƒ turbulence model in the framework of the elliptic relaxation concept and in conjunction with the universal wall treatment, combining integration up to the wall and wall functions.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Approach for the Chassis Control Development

Handling characteristics, ride comfort and active safety are customer relevant attributes of modern premium vehicles. Electronic control units offer new possibilities to optimize vehicle performance with respect to these goals. The integration of multiple control systems, each with its own focus, leads to a high complexity. BMW and ITK Engineering have created a tool to tackle this challenge. A simulation environment to cover all development stages has been developed. Various levels of complexity are addressed by a scalable simulation model and functionality, which grows step-by-step with increasing requirements. The simulation environment ensures the coherence of the vehicle data and simulation method for development of the electronic systems. The article describes both the process of the electronic control unit (ECU) development and positive impact of an integrated tool on the entire vehicle development process.
Technical Paper

Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems Developed and Manufactured for the First Time for Customer Cars

There is a common understanding that hydrogen has a great potential to be the fuel of the future. In addition to the challenge of developing appropriate hydrogen propulsion systems the development of hydrogen storage systems is the second big issue. Due to its high potential in cost and weight and specific storage capacity, the BMW Group is focusing on the development of liquid hydrogen storage systems. In the next hydrogen 7-Series the BMW Group is about to make for the first time the step from demonstration fleets to cars used by external users with a liquid hydrogen storage system. To realize this significant goal, special focus has to be put on high safety standards so that hydrogen can be considered as safe as common types of fuel, and on the every day reliability of the storage system. Moreover, the development of strong partnerships with suppliers is a key factor to realize the design and identify appropriate manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

A Two-Measurement Correction for the Effects of a Pressure Gradient on Automotive, Open-Jet, Wind Tunnel Measurements

This paper provides a method that corrects errors induced by the empty-tunnel pressure distribution in the aerodynamic forces and moments measured on an automobile in a wind tunnel. The errors are a result of wake distortion caused by the gradient in pressure over the wake. The method is applicable to open-jet and closed-wall wind tunnels. However, the primary focus is on the open tunnel because its short test-section length commonly results in this wake interference. The work is a continuation of a previous paper [4] that treated drag only at zero yaw angle. The current paper extends the correction to the remaining forces, moments and model surface pressures at all yaw angles. It is shown that the use of a second measurement in the wind tunnel, made with a perturbed pressure distribution, provides sufficient information for an accurate correction. The perturbation in pressure distribution can be achieved by extending flaps into the collector flow.
Technical Paper

Virtual testing driven development process for side impact safety

A new simulation tool was established and approved by TRW as part of the continuous improvement of the development process. This tool allows the OEM and the system supplier to keep high quality even with further reduced development times. The introduction of the tool in a side air-bag development program makes it possible to ensure high development confidence with a reduced number of vehicle crash tests and late availability of interior component parts.
Technical Paper

A Physical-Based Approach for Modeling the Influence of Different Operating Parameters on the Dependency of External EGR Rate and Indicated Efficiency

External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) provides an opportunity to increase the efficiency of turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Of the competing technologies and configurations, Low-Pressure EGR (LP-EGR) is the most challenging in terms of its dynamic behavior. Only some of the stationary feasible potential can be used during dynamic engine operation. To guarantee fuel consumption-optimized engine operation with no instabilities, a load point-dependent limitation of the EGR rate or alternatively an adaptation of the operating point to the actual EGR rate is crucial. For this purpose, a precise knowledge of efficiency and combustion variance is necessary. Since the operating state includes the actual EGR rate, it has an additional dimension, which usually results in an immense measuring effort.
Technical Paper

Robustness and Reliability Enhancement on Retractor Noise Testing, from Development Considerations to Round Robin

Sensing and acting elements to guarantee the locking functions of seat belt retractors can emit noise when the retractor is subjected to externally applied vibrations. For these elements to function correctly, stiffness, inertia and friction needs to be in tune, leading to a complex motion resistance behavior, which makes it delicate to test for vibration induced noise. Requirements for a noise test are simplicity, robustness, repeatability, and independence of laboratory and test equipment. This paper reports on joint development activities for an alternative test procedure, involving three test laboratories with different equipment. In vehicle observation on parcel shelf mounted retractors, commercially available test equipment, and recent results from multi-axial component tests [1], set the frame for this work. Robustness and reliability of test results is being analyzed by means of sensitivity studies on several test parameters.
Technical Paper

Seat Belt Retractor Noise Test Correlation to 2DOF Shaker Test and Real Vehicle Comfort

Seatbelt retractors as important part of modern safety systems are mounted in any automotive vehicle. Their internal locking mechanism is based on mechanically sensing elements. When the vehicle is run over rough road tracks, the retractor oscillates by spatial mode shapes and its interior components are subjected to vibrations in all 6 degrees of freedoms (DOF). Functional backlash of sensing elements cause impacts with neighbouring parts and leads to weak, but persistent rattle sound, being often rated acoustically annoying in the vehicle. Current acoustic retractor bench tests use exclusively uni-directional excitations. Therefore, a silent 2 DOF test bench is developed to investigate the effect of multi-dimensional excitation on retractor acoustics, combining two slip-tables, each driven independently by a shaker. Tests on this prototype test bench show, that cross coupling between the two perpendicular directions is less than 1%, allowing to control both directions independently.
Technical Paper

High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary. To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors. To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Model the Fan in Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

Vehicle thermal management (VTM) simulations constitute an important step in the early development phase of a vehicle. They help in predicting the temperature profiles of critical components over a drive cycle and identify components which are exceeding temperature design limits. Parts with the highest temperatures in a vehicle with an internal combustion engine are concentrated in the engine bay area. As packaging constraints grow tighter, the components in the engine bay are packed closer together. This makes the thermal protection in the engine bay even more crucial. The fan influences the airflow into the engine bay and plays an important role in deciding flow distribution in this region. This makes modelling of the fan an important aspect of VTM simulations. The challenge associated with modelling the fan is the accurate simulation of the rotation imparted by the fan to the incoming flow. Currently, two modelling approaches are prevalent in the industry.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Eigenfrequencies and Eigenmodes of Seatbelt Retractors in the Vehicle Environment, Supporting an Acoustically Optimal Retractor Integration by CAE

From an acoustical point of view, the integration of seatbelt retractors in a vehicle is a real challenge that has to be met early in the vehicle development process. The buzz and rattle noise of seat belt retractors is a weak yet disturbing interior noise. Street irregularities excite the wheels and this excitation is transferred via the car body to the mounting location of the retractor. Ultimately, the inertia sensor of the locking mechanism is also excited. This excitation can be amplified by structural resonances and generate a characteristic impact noise. The objective of this paper is to describe a simulation method for an early development phase that predicts the noise-relevant low frequency local modes and consequently the contact of the retractor with the mounting panel of the car body via the finite element method.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Automotive Defroster and Windshield Flow

The specification of automotive ventilation / defrosting systems has often utilized “trial-and-error” and “prior experience” techniques. But design development and production efficiency has generated a strong interest in using more sophisticated design tools such as computational fluid dynamics. For this purpose a joint experimental and numerical study was undertaken. This comprehensive investigation was divided into two parts. First, the three dimensional defroster flow field was measured using LDA in an actual automobile. Second, LDA and infrared thermography was used to map the flow and temperature fields for a two dimensional jet impinging upon a slanted plate -- a simplified representation of a car defroster geometry.
Journal Article

Timing Evaluation in E/E Architecture Design at BMW

Timing evaluation methods help to design a robust and extendible E/E architecture (electric/electronic). BMW has introduced the systematic application of such methods in the E/E design process within the last three years. Meanwhile, most of the architectural changes are now verified by a tool-based, automatic real-time analysis. This has increased the accuracy of the network planning and productivity of the BMW network department. In this paper, we give an overview of the actual status of timing evaluations in BMW's E/E architecture design. We discuss acceptance criteria, analysis metrics, and design rules, as far as these are related to timing. We look specifically at automation options, as these improve the productivity further. We will see that timing analysis has matured and should be mandatory for application in mass production E/E architecture development. At the same time, there is room for future improvements.
Technical Paper

Implementing Mixed Criticality Software Integration on Multicore - A Cost Model and the Lessons Learned

The German funded project ARAMiS included work on several demonstrators one of which was a multicore approach on large scale software integration (LSSI) for the automotive domain. Here BMW and Audi intentionally implemented two different integration platforms to gain both experience and real life data on a Hypervisor based concept on one side as well as using only native AUTOSAR-based methods on the other side for later comparison. The idea was to obtain figures on the added overhead both for multicore as well as safety, based on practical work and close-to-production implementations. During implementation and evaluation on one hand there were a lot of valuable lessons learned about multicore in conjunction with safety. On the other hand valuable information was gathered to make it finally possible to set up a cost model for estimation of potential overhead generated by different integration approaches for safety related software functions.
Technical Paper

Synergetic 1D-3D-Coupling in Engine Development Part I: Verification of Concept

This paper introduces an innovative approach, named synergetic 1D-3D-Coupling, by using synergy effects of 1D and 3D simulation in order to bring down modeling and simulation efforts. At the same time the methodology sustains the spatial resolution of a 3D model. This goal is reached by reducing the 3D fluid side with its time consuming continuity, momentum, energy and turbulence equations to a simple but precise 1D model. Because of the solid structure staying three dimensional, heat flux direction and spatial resolution have 3D accuracy but short calculation times due to the simple heat diffusion equation to be solved. The 1D model is represented by an automatically generated equation system which is capable of considering transient effects. The energy transfer between 1D fluid model and 3D structure model is realized through a neutral 1D-3D-coupling program and the application of the fluid element specific Nusselt correlations.