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Journal Article

Monitor Points Method for Loads Recovery in Static/Dynamic Aeroelasticity Analysis with Hybrid Airframe Representation

2013-09-17
2013-01-2142
With the high design/performance requirements in modern aircrafts, the need for a flexible airframe structural modeling strategy during the different phases of the airframe development process becomes a paramount. Hybrid structural modeling is a technique that is used for aircraft structural representation in which several Finite Element Modeling concepts are employed to model different parts of the airframe. Among others, the Direct Matrix Input at a Grid-Point (DMIG) approach has shown superiority in developing high fidelity, yet, simplified Finite Element Models (FEM's). While the deformation approach is a common choice for loads recovery in structures represented by stick models, using structural models simulated by the DMIG representation requires the adoption of a different approach for loads recovery applications, namely, the momentum approach.
Journal Article

Probability Assessment of the Fuel Tank Structural Feature Failures

2011-10-18
2011-01-2518
The paper provides an approach to establish compliance with current regulatory standards applicable to lightning protection of the fuel tank structure for Non-Fault Tolerant Feature Failures (NFTFF) through a numerical probability assessment. The proposed procedure is using the criteria defined in the FAA Policy Guidance for fuel tank structural lightning protection and is aligned with the regulatory path described as petitioning for an exemption. Failure modes of structural components for which fault tolerance has been shown to be impractical need to be addressed and the overall likelihood of fuel vapour ignition due to these failure modes must be shown to be extremely improbable. In order to accomplish this, the quantitative assessment of the overall probability of fuel vapour ignition is performed, along with all relevant data to support the probabilities determined for the purpose of this analysis.
Journal Article

Processing CSeries Aircraft Panels

2013-09-17
2013-01-2149
Bombardier faced new manufacturing process challenges drilling and fastening CSeries* aircraft panels with multi-material stacks of composite (CFRP), titanium and aluminum in which Gemcor responded with a unique, flexible CNC Drivmatic® automatic fastening system, now in production at Bombardier. This joint technical paper is presented by Bombardier, expounding on manufacturing process challenges with the C Series aircraft design requirements and Gemcor presenting a unique solution to automatically fasten CFRP aft fuselage panels and aluminum lithium (Al Li) cockpit panels with the same CNC Drivmatic® system. After installation and preliminary acceptance at Bombardier, the CNC system was further enhanced to automatically fasten the carbon fiber pressure bulkhead dome assembly.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Cost Fuselage Frames by Resin Transfer Molding

2013-09-17
2013-01-2325
This paper presents work on the development of a low cost fuselage C-frame for aircraft primary structure using a Light Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process. Compared to labor intensive hand layup prepreg technologies, Light RTM offers some substantial advantages by reducing infrastructure requirements such as hydraulic presses or autoclaves. Compared to Prepreg, Light RTM tooling creates two finished surfaces, which is an advantage during installation due to improved dimensional accuracy. The focus of this work was to develop means of achieving high fiber volume fraction structural frames using low cost tooling and a low volume manufacturing strategy. In this case a three piece Light RTM mold was developed using an internal mandrel. To achieve the strength requirements, a combination of crimped and non-crimped fabrics were selected for the reinforcing preform.
Journal Article

Part Redesign: From Fastened Assembly to Co-Cured Concept

2013-09-17
2013-01-2329
During the course of an aircraft program, cost and weight savings are two major areas demanding constant improvements. An Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) was set to the task of proposing potential improvements to an aircraft under development. From a list of potential parts, the IPDT selected one which was considered as the most suitable to leverage a co-curing process. In the aircraft manufacturing industry, any major modification to a part design should follow the program's means of compliance to certification. Furthermore, to demonstrate the new design's safety, sizing methodology and all supplementary testing must fit in the certification strategy. The IPDT approach was used to ensure the maturity of both process and part. Indeed, a mature turnkey solution can be implemented quickly on the shop floor. This IPDT approach is detailed in another SAE 2013 technical paper entitled: “A Novel Approach for Technology Development: A Success Story” [3].
Journal Article

Process Change: Redesign of Composite Parts for Structural Integrity

2013-09-17
2013-01-2328
The objective of this document is to present the methodology used to verify the structural integrity of a redesigned composite part. While shifting the manufacturing process of a composite part from pre-impregnated to a liquid resin injection process, the Composites Development team at Bombardier Aerospace had to redesign the component to a new set of design allowables. The Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) was able to quickly provide a turnkey solution that assessed three aspects of airframe engineering: Design, Materials & Processes (M&P) and Stress. The focus of this paper will be the stress substantiation process led by the Stress Engineers. It will also bring up the synergies with M&P that are unique to the IPDT approach. The stress substantiation process required three distinct checks be confirmed.
Journal Article

Preforming of a Fuselage C-Shaped Frame Manufactured by Resin Transfer Molding

2013-09-17
2013-01-2214
The need for efficient manufacturing approaches has emerged with the increasing usage of composites for structural components in commercial aviation. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM), a process where a fiber preform is injected with resin into a closed tool, can achieve high fiber content required for structural components as well as improved dimensional accuracy since all surfaces are controlled by a tool surface. Moreover, RTM is well suited for parts that can be standardized throughout the aircraft, such as a fuselage frames and stringers. The objective of this investigation is to develop a preforming approach for a C-Shaped Fuselage frame. Two approaches are proposed: tri-axial braiding and hand lay-up of Non-Crimp Fabrics. The fiber architecture of the basic materials as well as the complete preforms is explained. The necessary preforming operations are detailed. The quality control measurement of fiber orientation and thickness are presented.
Journal Article

Challenges Associated with a Complex Compound Curvature Passenger Doors

2013-09-17
2013-01-2217
This study investigates challenges associated with integrating a passenger (PAX) door on complex compound curvature (CCC) fuselages. Aerospace companies are investigating concepts that no-longer have constant cross-section (CS) fuselages. The PAX door is based on a generic semi-plug door for a long range business jet (BJ). This study investigates limitations of locating the door by varying the transition zone angle. A parametric CATIA tool, coupled with the use of finite element model (FEM) results can highlight key drivers in the design and location of PAX doors, creating a first-draft structural layout. The associated impact on the design and structural architecture for a fold down PAX door with integrated stairs is discussed. The impact of CCCs on the PAX door design is investigated with consideration to location, kinematics and function of the door.
Journal Article

Wear Dependent Tool Reliability Analysis during Cutting Titanium Metal Matrix Composites (Ti-MMCs)

2013-09-17
2013-01-2198
Metal matrix composites (MMCs) exhibit superior characteristics such as low weight, high stiffness, and high mechanical and physical properties. Inheriting such an outstanding combination of specifications, they are nowadays considered as the promising materials in the aerospace and biomedical industries. However, the presence of high abrasive reinforcing particles in MMCs leads to severe manufacturing issues. Due to the tool-particle interactions which occur during the machining of MMCs, high tool wear and poor surface finish are induced and those elements are considered as the main drawbacks of cutting MMCs. In this study, dry turning experiments were conducted for two different inserts and coated carbide on a bar of titanium metal matrix composite (Ti-MMC). Semi-finishing machining is operated with cutting parameters based on the tool supplier's recommendations which were not fully optimized. The maximum flank wear length (VBBmax) was selected as the tool wear criteria.
Journal Article

Reliability Improvement of Lithium Cells Using Laser Welding Process with Design of Experiments

2013-09-17
2013-01-2201
Manufacturing operations introduce unreliability into hardware that is not ordinarily accounted for by reliability design engineering efforts. Inspections and test procedures normally interwoven into fabrication processes are imperfect, and allow defects to escape which later result in field failures. Therefore, if the reliability that is designed and developed into an equipment/system is to be achieved, efforts must be applied during production to insure that reliability is built into the hardware. There are various ways to improve the reliability of a product. These include: Simplification Stress reduction/strength enhancement Design Improvement Using higher quality components Environmental Stress Screening before shipment Process Improvements, etc. This paper concentrates on ‘Manufacturing Process Improvement’ effort through the use of design of experiments, (DOE). Hence, improved levels of reliability can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Aerospace Panels Fixtureless Inspection Methods with Restraining Force Requirements; A Technology Review

2013-09-17
2013-01-2172
Aerospace panels are commonly restrained on complex inspection fixture jigs during the measurement process. Forces used to restrain the part are also monitored because of the part functional requirements. Given the difficulties in measuring these types of parts, this paper reviews the available fixtureless inspection methods with a focus on the challenges of their implementation and their aptitude to be used to estimate the part profile and the necessary restraining forces of an aerospace panel. To perform this investigation, finite element analysis is used to predict the constrained shape of four (4) simulated free state aerospace panel, with two different type of boundary condition, in five scenarios. From those analyses, the importance and limits of current finite element boundary setting method embedded in fixtureless inspection methods for nonrigid parts are highlighted.
Technical Paper

A Robust Iterative Displacement Inspection Algorithm for Quality Control of Aerospace Non-Rigid Parts without Conformation Jig

2013-09-17
2013-01-2173
Nowadays, optimization of manufacturing and assembly operations requires taking into account the inherent processes variations. Geometric and dimensional metrology of mechanical parts is very crucial for the aerospace industry and contributes greatly to its. In a free-state condition, non-rigid parts (or compliant parts) may have a significant different shape than their nominal geometry (CAD model) due to gravity loads and residual stress. Typically, the quality control of such parts requires a special approach where expensive and specialized fixtures are needed to constrain dedicated and follow the component during the inspection. Inspecting these parts without jig will have significant economic impacts for aerospace industries, reducing delays and the cost of product quality inspection. The Iterative Displacement Inspection (IDI) algorithm has been developed to deal with this problem.
Journal Article

Defining Environmental Indicators at Detail Design Stage as Part of an Ecodesign Strategy

2013-09-17
2013-01-2276
Implementing Design for Environment (DfE) into the design process requires a strategic integration. Furthermore, as DfE is continuously evolving, flexible processes need to be implemented. This article focuses on the integration of DfE into an optimization framework with the objective of influencing next-generation aircraft. For this purpose, DfE and Structures groups are developing together a set of new environmental indicators covering all life cycle stages of the product by coupling a list of yes/no questions with an environmental matrix. The following indicators are calculated: Regulation risk, Impact of manufacturing the part, CO2 emissions and Recyclability potential. These indicators will be used as constraints in the multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework, meaning that the structure will be designed while complying with environmental targets and anticipating future regulation changes.
Journal Article

Control Charts for Short Production Runs in Aerospace Manufacturing

2013-09-17
2013-01-2248
Statistical process control (SPC) has been extensively used in many different industries including automotive, electronics, and aerospace, among others. SPC tools such as control charts, process capability analysis, sampling inspection, etc., have definitive and powerful impact on quality control and improvement for mass production and similar production systems. In aerospace manufacturing, however, applications of SPC tools are more challenging, especially when these tools are implemented in processes producing products of large sizes with slower production rates. For instance, following a widely accepted rule-of-thumb, about 100 units of products are required in the first phase of implementing a Shewhart type control chart. Once established, it then can be used for process control in the second phase for actual production process monitoring and control.
Journal Article

Reliability Modeling Approach and Hydraulic Actuators Designed Hinge-Moment Capability

2013-09-17
2013-01-2232
The hydraulic actuators are used to power flight control surfaces of the aircraft and to ensure surface movement. A system of two or three actuators is usually designed depending on the surface and intuitively these actuators are considered as a redundant architecture from a reliability and functionality point of view. The proper reliability modeling of the system of actuators must consider the system's functionality and design constraints for the remaining available actuator hinge-moment in the event of a partial or total actuator failure. As a result, this will affect the reliability assessment of that design. Furthermore, this system of actuators is also designed to provide a second function involving an assurance of the surface stiffness and damping. Generally, this second function does not require necessarily the same number of available actuators in order to be fully provided.
Technical Paper

Managing Risk Reduction using a Relative Risk Prioritization Tool

2007-09-17
2007-01-3871
The Safety Management System (SMS) provides an environment where undesired events (proactively or reactively identified) are evaluated for the effect on safety using Risk Analysis. When the risk is evaluated, an interim risk reduction (mitigating action) may be applied to reduce the risk to a level that allows operations for a longer period before the safety issue is fully resolved. The risk assessment provides a means of evaluating the risk level and it may be difficult to quantify the “benefit” of interim mitigations that will reduce the risk. Prioritization of issues in the same risk category of the Risk Matrix is often simplified to a schedule and logistics basis of the final corrective action and often does not adequately show the benefit of the interim mitigating actions taken.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Wing Leading Edge Contamination on the Stall Characteristics of Aircraft

2007-09-24
2007-01-3286
Lessons learned from analysis of in-service icing incidents are described. The airfoil and wing design factors that define an aircraft's natural stall characteristics are explored, including the aerodynamic effects of contamination. Special attention is given to contamination in the form of “roughness” along wing leading edges typical of frost. In addition, the key aerodynamic effects of ground proximity and sideslip/crosswind during the take-off rotation are described. An empirical method, that can be used to predict a wing's sensitivity to wing leading edge roughness, is demonstrated. The paper explores the in-service differences of aircraft that incorporate “hard”, “supercritical” and “slatted” wings. The paper attempts to explain why the statistical evidence appears to favor the slatted wing for winter operations.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Safety Monitoring and Assessment Practices

2001-09-11
2001-01-2639
Aircraft systems are designed with reliability, safety and cost effectiveness in mind. The certification of the aircraft is based on tests and results of theoretical analyses that show the compliance with the FAR/JAR requirements. Monitoring for safety for in-service aircraft is an important, critical and extremely complex process. The ultimate objective is to assure that the safety level is equal to the original estimate or better. The manufacturer of the aircraft is particularly responsible for overall monitoring and assessment of all safety related events and corrective actions. Many different philosophies were adopted for this purpose. The safety monitoring and audit strategy is generally based on experience, engineering judgment, event analysis and numerical quantification by using probability theory and statistical tools. The aircraft sequential entry in the service and the aging of their components lead to the non-homogeneity of the fleet.
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