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Technical Paper

Analysis of Gaseous and PM Emissions of 4-Stroke CAI/HCCI and SI Combustion in a DI Gasoline Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1549
Direct injection gasoline engines have the potential for improved fuel economy through principally the engine down-sizing, stratified charge combustion, and Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI). However, due to the limited time available for complete fuel evaporation and the mixing of fuel and air mixture, locally fuel rich mixture or even liquid fuel can be present during the combustion process of a direct injection gasoline engine. This can result in significant increase in UHC, CO and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from direct injection gasoline engines which are of major concerns because of the environmental and health implications. In order to investigate and develop a more efficient DI gasoline engine, a camless single cylinder DI gasoline engine has been developed. Fully flexible electro-hydraulically controlled valve train was used to achieve spark ignition (SI) and Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion in both 4-stroke and 2-stroke cycles.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1674
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol on Part-Load Performance and Emissions Analysis of SI Combustion with EIVC and Throttled Operation and CAI Combustion

2014-04-01
2014-01-1611
Internal combustion engines are subjected to part-load operation more than in full load during a typical vehicle driving cycle. The problem with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is its inherent low part-load efficiency. This problem arises due to the pumping loses that occur when the throttle closes or partially opens. One way of decreasing the pumping losses is to operate the engine lean or by adding residual gases. It is not possible to operate the engine unthrottled at very low loads due to misfire. However, the load can also be controlled by changing the intake valve closing timing - either early or late intake valve closing. Both strategies reduce the pumping loses and hence increase the efficiency. However the early intake valve closure (EIVC) can be used as mode transition from SI to CAI combustion.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Performance, Efficiency and Emissions between Gasoline and E85 in a Two-Stroke Poppet Valve Engine with Lean Boost CAI Operation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0827
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Most research on CAI/HCCI combustion operations have been carried out in 4-stroke gasoline engines, despite it was originally employed to improve the part-load combustion and emission in the two-stroke gasoline engine. However, conventional ported two-stroke engines suffer from durability and high emissions. In order to take advantage of the high power density of the two-stroke cycle operation and avoid the difficulties of the ported engine, systematic research and development works have been carried out on the two-stroke cycle operation in a 4-valves gasoline engine. CAI combustion was achieved over a large range of operating conditions when the relative air/fuel ratio (lambda) was kept at one as measured by an exhaust lambda sensor.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion in a GDI Engine with Single and Split Fuel Injections

2007-04-16
2007-01-0211
A multi-cycle three-dimensional CFD engine simulation programme has been developed and applied to analyze the Controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion, also known as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), in a direct injection gasoline engine. CAI operation was achieved through the negative valve overlap method by means of a set of low lift camshafts. The effect of single injection timing on combustion phasing and underlying physical and chemical processes involved was examined through a series of analytical studies using the multi-cycle 3D engine simulation programme. The analyses showed that early injection into the trapped burned gases of a lean-burn mixture during the negative valve overlap period had a large effect on combustion phasing, due to localized heat release and the production of chemically reactive species. As the injection was retarded to the intake stroke, the charge cooling effect tended to slow down the autoignition process.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the Effect of Injection Timing on Stoichiometric and Lean CAI Operations in a 4-Stroke GDI Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0417
The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) can be achieved by the negative valve overlap method in conjunction with direct injection in a four-stroke gasoline engine. A multi-cycle 3D engine simulation program has been developed and applied to study the effect of injection timing on CAI operations with lean and stoichiometric mixtures. The combustion models used in the present study are based on the modified Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. Based on the parametric studies on injection timing and equivalence ratio, the major difference between stoichiometric and lean-burn CAI operations is due to the fact that fuel injections take place during the negative valve overlap period.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ignition Timing on CAI Combustion in a Multi-Cylinder DI Gasoline Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3720
Having achieved CAI-combustion in a 4-cylinder four-stroke gasoline DI engine the effects of ignition timing on the CAI combustion process were investigated through the introduction of spark. By varying the start of fuel injection, the effects on Indicated Specific values for NOx, HC, CO emissions and fuel consumption were investigated for CAI combustion. The CAI combustion process was then assisted by spark and three different ignition timings were studied. The effect on engine performance and the emission specific values were investigated further. The engine speed was maintained at 1500 rpm and lambda was kept constant at 1.2. It was found that with spark-assisted CAI, IMEP and ISNOx values increased as compared with typical CAI. ISHC values were lower for spark-assisted CAI as compared to typical CAI. Heat release data was studied to better understand this phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Developing a Fuel Stratification Concept on a Spark Ignition Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0476
A fuel stratification concept has been developed in a three-valve twin-spark spark ignition engine. This concept requires that two fuels or fuel components of different octane numbers (ON) be introduced into the cylinder separately through two independent inlet ports. They are then stratified into two regions laterally by a strong tumbling flow and ignited by the spark plug located in each region. This engine can operate in the traditional stratified lean-burn mode at part loads to obtain a good part-load fuel economy as long as one fuel is supplied. At high loads, an improved fuel economy might also be obtained by igniting the low ON fuel first and leaving the high ON fuel in the end gas region to resist knock. This paper gives a detailed description of developing the fuel stratification concept, including optimization of in-cylinder flow, mixture and combustion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion

2007-11-28
2007-01-2609
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition), is increasingly seen as a very effective way of lowering both fuel consumption and emissions from gasoline engines. Therefore, it's seen as one of the best ways to meet future engine emissions and CO2 legislations. This combustion concept was achieved in a Ford production, port-injected, 4 cylinder gasoline engine. The only major modification to the original engine was the replacement of the original camshafts by a new set of custom made ones. The CAI operation was accomplished by means of using residual gas trapping made possible by the use of VCT (variable cam timing) on both intake and exhaust camshafts. When running on CAI, the engine was able to achieve CAI combustion with in a load range of 0.5 to 4.5 BMEP, and a speed range of 1000 to 3500 rpm. In addition, spark assisted CAI operation was employed to extend the operational range of low NOx and low pumping loss at part-load conditions.
Technical Paper

CAI Combustion with Methanol and Ethanol in an Air-Assisted Direct Injection SI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1673
CAI combustion has the potential to be the most clean combustion technology in internal combustion engines and is being intensively researched. Following the previous research on CAI combustion of gasoline fuel, systematic investigation is being carried out on the application of bio-fuels in CAI combustion. As part of an on-going research project, CAI combustion of methanol and ethanol was studied on a single-cylinder direct gasoline engine with an air-assisted injector. The CAI combustion was achieved by trapping part of burnt gas within the cylinder through using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During the experiment the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2100rpm and the air/fuel ratio was altered from the stoichiometry to the misfire limit. Their combustion characteristics were obtained by analysing cylinder pressure trace.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on Mixture and CAI Combustion in a GDI Engine with an Air-Assisted Injector

2006-04-03
2006-01-0206
The application of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is becoming of more interest due to its great potential of reducing both NOx emissions and fuel consumption. Injection timing has been known as an important parameter to control CAI combustion process. In this paper, the effect of injection timing on mixture and CAI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder GDI engine with an air-assisted injector. The liquid and vapour phases of fuel spray were measured using planar laser induced exciplex fluorescence (PLIEF) technique. The result shows that early injection led to homogeneous mixture but late injection resulted in serious stratification at the end of compression. CAI combustion in this study was realized by using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During tests, the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2400rpm and A/F ratio from stoichiometric to lean limit.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing and Valve Timings on CAI Operation in a Multi-Cylinder DI Gasoline Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0132
CAI-combustion was achieved in a 4-cylinder four-stroke gasoline DI engine, with all cylinders running in CAI-mode. Standard components were used, with the exception of the camshafts which had been modified in order to restrict the gas exchange process. Results shown in the paper are between a load of 1.45 - 2.65 bar, an engine speed of 1500rpm and at a lambda value of 1.2. As is typical with this type of combustion, reductions in emissions of NOx were recorded as well as a slight decrease in HC emissions, also there was a reduction in the brake specific fuel consumption. The effect that injection timing on factors such as start of combustion, combustion duration and heat release rate are also investigated.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Effects of Fuel Injection Timings on CAI/HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke GDI Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0144
The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings, in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and CAI combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes.
Technical Paper

Development of a Two-Stroke/Four-Stroke Switching Gasoline Engine - The 2/4SIGHT Concept

2005-04-11
2005-01-1137
The pursuit of flexibility is a recurring theme in engine design and development. Engines that are able to switch between the two-stroke operating cycle and four-stroke operation promise a great leap in flexibility. Such 2S-4S engines could then continuously select the optimum operating mode - including HCCI/CAI combustion - for fuel efficiency, emissions or specific output. With recent developments in valvetrain technology, advanced boosting devices, direct fuel injection and engine control, the 2S-4S engine is an increasingly real prospect. The authors have undertaken a comprehensive feasibility study for 2S-4S gasoline engines. This study has encompassed concept and detailed design, design analysis, one-dimensional gas dynamics simulation, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, and vehicle simulation. The resulting 2/4SIGHT concept engine is a 1.04 l in-line three-cylinder engine producing 230 Nm and 85 kW.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Intake Pressure and Split Injection on Lean Combustion Characteristics of a Poppet-Valve Two-Stroke Direct Injection Gasoline Engine at High Loads

2018-09-10
2018-01-1723
Poppet-valve two-stroke gasoline engines can increase the specific power of their four-stroke counterparts with the same displacement and hence decrease fuel consumption. However, knock may occur at high loads. Therefore, the combustion with stratified lean mixture was proposed to decrease knock tendency and improve combustion stability in a poppet-valve two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine. The effect of intake pressure and split injection on fuel distribution, combustion and knock intensity in lean mixture conditions at high loads was simulated with a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic software. Simulation results show that with the increase of intake pressure, the average fuel-air equivalent ratio in the cylinder decreases when the second injection ratio was fixed at 70% at a given amount of fuel in a cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on DME Assisted Gasoline CAI/HCCI Combustion with Intake Re-Breathing Valve Strategy

2015-09-01
2015-01-1818
In order to investigate feasibility of DME (Di-methyl ether) assisted gasoline CAI (controlled-auto ignition) combustion, direct DME injection is employed to act as the ignition source to trigger the auto-ignition combustion of premixed gasoline/air mixture with high temperature exhaust gas. Intake re-breathing valve strategy is adopted to obtain internal exhaust recirculation (EGR) that regulates heat release rate and ignitability of the premixed gasoline and air mixture. The effects of intake re-breathing valve timing and 2nd DME injection timing of different split injection ratios were investigated and discussed in terms of combustion characteristics, emission and efficiencies. The analyses showed that re-breathing intake valve timing had a large effect on the operation range of CAI combustion due to EGR and intake temperature variation.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Studies of High Injection Pressure Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion in a Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1819
Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is an advanced combustion concept to simultaneously reduce the NOx and soot emissions whilst retaining high engine efficiencies. In order to have a better understanding of gasoline PPC operation in terms of mixture formation, combustion and emissions characteristics, the investigation was carried out at 1200 bar injection pressure using the combination of thermodynamic and optical diagnostic analysis in a single cylinder common rail fuel injection engine with optical access. The PPC operation was achieved with a combination of high dilution and higher intake charge temperature at part-load condition using primary reference fuel (PRF). Split injections of two fuel distribution strategies (50:50 and 70:30) were studied.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Methane Slip Using Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1798
An experimental study has been carried out with the end goal of minimizing engine-out methane emissions with Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion (PMPC) in a natural gas-diesel Dual-Fuel™ engine. The test engine used is a heavy-duty single cylinder engine with high pressure common rail diesel injection as well as port fuel injection of natural gas. Multiple variables were examined, including injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentages, and rail pressure for diesel, conventional Dual-Fuel, and PMPC Dual-Fuel combustion modes. The responses investigated were pressure rise rate, engine-out emissions, heat release and indicated specific fuel consumption. PMPC reduces methane slip when compared to conventional Dual-Fuel and improves emissions and fuel efficiency at the expense of higher cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Gasoline Spray with an Outward-Opening Piezoelectric Injector: A Comparative Study of Different Breakup Models

2018-04-03
2018-01-0272
The outward-opening piezoelectric injector can achieve stable fuel/air mixture distribution and multiple injections in a single cycle, having attracted great attentions in direct injection gasoline engines. In order to realise accurate predictions of the gasoline spray with the outward-opening piezoelectric injector, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the gasoline spray with different droplet breakup models were performed in the commercial CFD software STAR-CD and validated by the corresponding measurements. The injection pressure was fixed at 180 bar, while two different backpressures (1 and 10 bar) were used to evaluate the robustness of the breakup models. The effects of the mesh quality, simulation timestep, breakup model parameters were investigated to clarify the overall performance of different breakup model in modeling the gasoline sprays.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of the Direct Injection Dimethyl Ether Enabled Micro-Flame Ignited (MFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1247
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to improve gasoline engines’ efficiency and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. Two of the primary obstacles for applying CAI combustion are the control of combustion phasing and the maximum heat release rate. To solve these problems, dimethyl ether (DME) was directly injected into the cylinder to generate multi-point micro-flame through compression in order to manage the entire heat release of gasoline in the cylinder through port fuel injection, which is known as micro-flame ignited (MFI) hybrid combustion.
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