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Journal Article

Effects of Injection Timing on CAI Operation in a 2/4-Stroke Switchable GDI Engine

A single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine has been developed and commissioned on a transient engine test bed in order to study different engine cycles and combustion modes with identical hardware and operating conditions. The engine can be operated in either 4-stroke cycle or 2-stroke cycle by means of an electro-hydraulic camless system. In addition, both spark ignition and controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion can be achieved. In this paper, effects of the injection timing on different CAI combustion modes are investigated, including the residual gas trapping and exhaust gas rebreathing CAI operations in 4-stroke mode, and also 2-stroke CAI operation, with a stoichiometric air fuel ratio and homogeneous charge used throughout. The performance and emission data are presented and analysed as a function of the injection timing. Results show that the charge cooling effect on the intake flow rate is dependent upon the in-cylinder temperature at the time of injection.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Low Load Limit of HCCI Combustion Process Using EIVO Strategy in a 4VVAS Gasoline Engine

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in gasoline engine. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its limited operation range. High load is limited by the tradeoff between the quantity of working charge and dilution charge. Low load is limited by the high residual gas fraction and low temperature in the cylinder. One of the highlights of HCCI combustion research at present is to expand the low load limit of HCCI combustion by developing HCCI idle operation. The main obstacle in developing HCCI idle combustion is too high residual gas fraction and low temperature to misfire in cylinder. This paper relates to a method for achieving the appropriate environment for auto-ignition at idle and the optimal tradeoff between the combustion stability and fuel consumption by employing EIVO valve strategy with an equivalent air-fuel ratio.
Journal Article

Investigation of Early and Late Intake Valve Closure Strategies for Load Control in a Spark Ignition Ethanol Engine

The more strict CO2 emission legislation for internal combustion engines demands higher spark ignition (SI)engine efficiencies. The use of renewable fuels, such as bioethanol, may play a vital role to reduce not only CO2 emissions but also petroleum dependency. An option to increase SI four stroke engine efficiency is to use the so called over-expanded cycle concepts by variation of the valve events. The use of an early or late intake valve closure reduces pumping losses (the main cause of the low part load efficiency in SI engines) but decreases the effective compression ratio. The higher expansion to compression ratio leads to better use of the produced work and also increases engine efficiency. This paper investigates the effects of early and late intake valve closure strategies in the gas exchange process, combustion, emissions and engine efficiency at unthrottled stoichiometric operation.
Technical Paper

Impact of Port Fuel Injection and In-Cylinder Fuel Injection Strategies on Gasoline Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy

As the emission regulations for internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent, different solutions have been researched and developed, such as dual injection systems (combined port and direct fuel injection), split injection strategies (single and multiple direct fuel injection) and different intake air devices to generate an intense in-cylinder air motion. The aim of these systems is to improve the in-cylinder mixture preparation (in terms of homogeneity and temperature) and therefore enhance the combustion, which ultimately increases thermal efficiency and fuel economy while lowering the emissions. This paper describes the effects of dual injection systems on combustion, efficiency and emissions of a downsized single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. A set of experiments has been conducted with combined port fuel and late direct fuel injection strategy in order to improve the combustion process.
Technical Paper

The Competing Chemical and Physical Effects of Transient Fuel Enrichment During Heavy Knock in an Optical SI Engine Using Ethanol Blends

The experimental work was concerned with improving understanding of the competing effects of the latent heat of vaporization and auto-ignition delay times of different ethanol blended fuels during heaving knocking combustion. The unique single cylinder SI engine employed included full bore overhead optical access capable of withstanding unusually high in-cylinder pressures. Heavy knock was deliberately induced under moderate loads using inlet air heating and a primary reference fuel blend of reduced octane rating. High-speed chemiluminescence imaging and simultaneous in-cylinder pressure data measurement were used to evaluate the combustion events. Under normal operation the engine was operated under port fuel injection with a stoichiometric air-fuel mixture. Multiple centered auto-ignition events were regularly observed, with knock intensities of up to ~40bar. Additional excess fuel of varied blend was then introduced directly into the end-gas in short transient bursts.
Technical Paper

Effect of a split-injections strategy on the atomisation rate for charge stratification using a high pressure gasoline multi-hole injector

Some of the challenges of optimising the gasoline direct-injection engines are achieving high rates of atomisation and evaporation of fuel sprays for effective fuel-air mixture formation. This is especially important for the stratified charge when operating under cold-start and part-load conditions. Poorly mixed charge results in the increased production of total Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Oxides. Many studies have previously focused on improving the spray characteristics of a single fuel injection strategy from direct-injection gasoline injectors, with fuel rail pressures of up to 20MPa. The current study focuses on a split injections strategy and its influence on the spray's structure, fuel-air mixing and atomisation rates. Short pulse widths in the range of 0.3ms to 0.8ms are employed. In particular, the effects of dwell times between the two injections on the second injection's spray characteristics are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Engine Downsizing through Two-Stroke Operation in a Four-Valve GDI Engine

With the introduction of CO2 emissions legislation in Europe and many countries, there has been extensive research on developing high efficiency gasoline engines by means of the downsizing technology. Under this approach the engine operation is shifted towards higher load regions where pumping and friction losses have a reduced effect, so improved efficiency is achieved with smaller displacement engines. However, to ensure the same full load performance of larger engines the charge density needs to be increased, which raises concerns about abnormal combustion and excessive in-cylinder pressure. In order to overcome these drawbacks a four-valve direct injection gasoline engine was modified to operate in the two-stroke cycle. Hence, the same torque achieved in an equivalent four-stroke engine could be obtained with one half of the mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Effects of Direct Injection Timing and Air Dilution on the Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion can effectively improve the thermal efficiency of conventional spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines, due to shortened combustion processes caused by multi-point auto-ignition. However, its commercial application is limited by the difficulties in controlling ignition timing and violent heat release process at high loads. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion, a concept in which rich mixture around spark plug is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition and the unburned lean mixture closing to cylinder wall auto-ignites in the increasing in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, was proposed to overcome these challenges.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Boost System for a High Performance 2-Stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine

A 2-stroke boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine was researched and developed at Brunel University London to achieve higher power-to-mass ratio and thermal efficiency. In the BUSDIG engine concept, the intake scavenge ports are integrated to the cylinder liner and controlled by the movement of piston top while exhaust valves are placed in the cylinder head. Systematic studies on scavenging ports, intake plenum, piston design, valve opening profiles and fuel injection strategies have been performed to investigate and optimise the scavenging performance and in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process for optimised combustion process. In order to achieve superior power performance with higher thermal efficiency, the evaluation and optimisation of the boost system for a 1.0 L 2-cylinder 2-stroke BUSDIG engine were performed in this study using one dimensional (1D) engine simulations.