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Technical Paper

Overview of Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program

2000-06-19
2000-01-1879
This paper describes the results of Phase 1 of the Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program. The objective of the program is to determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emissions control systems that could be used to lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from vehicles with diesel engines. The DECSE program has now issued four interim reports for its first phase, with conclusions about the effect of diesel sulfur level on PM and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions from the high-temperature lean-NOx catalyst, the increase of engine-out sulfate emissions with higher sulfur fuel levels, the effect of sulfur content on NOx adsorber conversion efficiencies, and the effect of fuel sulfur content on diesel oxidation catalysts, causing increased PM emissions above engine-out emissions under certain operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Air and Road Surface Temperature on Tire Pavement Noise on an ISO 10844 Surface

2001-04-30
2001-01-1598
Sound pressure level (SPL) measurements of vehicle coast-by runs of a passenger vehicle were performed across a range of temperatures. A controlled test track was used for the runs with six different sets of tires. A small but significant reduction of noise level with positive temperature increases was observed for some but not all tires. The reduction was evident in two of the tires at 53 kph and five of the tires at 80 kph. The SPL of the other tires showed little or no sensitivity to temperature. Frequency analysis of the tire noise showed that noise content above 1000 Hz is most affected by temperature change and noise in the range of 1200 to 2000 Hz is particularly sensitive to temperature changes. However, differences in SPL due to speed and tire type were much greater than that due to temperature
Technical Paper

Caterpillar Light Truck Clean Diesel Program

1999-04-27
1999-01-2243
In 1998, light trucks accounted for over 48% of new vehicle sales in the U.S. and well over half the new Light Duty vehicle fuel consumption. The Light Truck Clean Diesel (LTCD) program seeks to introduce large numbers of advanced technology diesel engines in light-duty trucks that would improve their fuel economy (mpg) by at least 50% and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign oil. Incorporating diesel engines in this application represents a high-risk technical and economic challenge.
Technical Paper

A CFD Study of Losses in a Straight-Six Diesel Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0230
Using a previously validated and documented CFD methodology, this research simulated the flow field in the intake region (inlet duct, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) involving the four cylinders (#1, #3, #4, #6) of a straight-six IC engine. Each cylinder was studied with its intake valves set at high, medium and low valve lifts. All twelve viscous 3-D turbulent flow simulation models had high density, high quality computational grids and complete domains. Extremely fine grid density were applied for every simulation up to 1,000,000 finite volume cells. Results for all the cases presented here were declared “fully converged” and “grid independent”. The relative magnitude of total pressure losses in the entire intake region and loss mechanisms were documented here. It was found that the total pressure losses were caused by a number of flow mechanisms.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Simulation Model for Analyzing the Performance of a Steel-Tracked Feller Buncher

1999-09-13
1999-01-2785
A parametric simulation model of a steel-tracked feller buncher was developed1. This model can be used to predict the lift capacity, side tipping angles, grade-ability, and joint forces during a cutting cycle. The feller buncher is defined parametrically, allowing the user to quickly analyze different machine configurations simply by changing the value of a variable. Several simulations were performed to illustrate the application of the model.
Technical Paper

The Caterpillar D9L Impact Ripper

1987-04-01
870779
Caterpillar has introduced a new concept that shatters previous ripping limitations. The D9L Impact Ripper has extended the ripping capacity and productivity of the standard ripper tractor in heavy construcion, mining, and quarry applications. This paper describes the design objectives, development program, component selection, and the demonstrated productivity of the D9L Impact Ripper.
Technical Paper

Challenger 65: A New Force in the Field

1987-09-01
871640
The Challenger 65 agricultural tractor combines the best features of current four wheel drive machines; speed, on-road mobility, and operator comfort with the well recognized advantages of track-type machines; tractive efficiency and reduced soil compaction.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Second Generation Sound Power Test for Production Testing of Earthmoving Equipment

1989-05-01
891144
IMPLEMENTATION OF A SECOND GENERATION SOUND POWER TEST FOR PRODUCTION TESTING OF EARTHMOVING EQUIPMENT Caterpillar has developed an automated sound power measurement system that measures construction equipment sound levels before they leave the assembly plant. This paper describes the test system and gives the results of verification tests conducted at various manufacturing plants around the world. It was concluded that the new system allows Caterpillar to quickly and accurately acquire the data necessary to assure that their product meets its noise requirements.
Technical Paper

A Simulation of a Motorgrader Blade Lift Circuit

1988-04-01
880796
A mathematical model was developed to analyze an instability problem in a developmental motorgrader blade circuit. This dynamic computer model was verified when simulation results compared well to measured data. Solutions to the problem were found with the model. The best solution was verified with a vehicle test. This circuit included a variable pump, an implement valve, a lock valve, and a cylinder.
Technical Paper

Integrated Diagnostics for the Vehicle System

1991-11-01
912683
How will a mechanic troubleshoot the heavy duty vehicle of the future? Will he or she have to be both retriever and integrator of data collected from multiple black boxes on the vehicle? How many tools will it take? Is there a definition of a vehicle system “diagnostic environment” that needs to be developed in order to create a solution to this problem? This paper will attempt to create the system focus for vehicle diagnostics that is required if this industry is to successfully produce the integrated electronic vehicle of the future. Both the on-board and off-board requirements of the diagnostic environment will be examined.
Technical Paper

Airflow and Thermal Analysis of Underhood Engine Enclosures

1994-03-01
940316
A numerical model that utilizes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques has been developed for the analysis of underhood engine cooling systems of large slow moving vehicles. Several physical models have been developed and incorporated into a CFD code including; a) a model for predicting pressure losses due to screens and grills; b) a model for approximating the forces exerted by the fan on the flow; and c) a model for calculating the heat transfer inside the radiator. The CFD code and physical models have been demonstrated and validated against experimental data. Several three dimensional computational grids that represent various engine enclosures have been created and used to analyze the fluid flow and heat transfer inside the engine enclosure system. The computational results are compared to test data which were obtained for this study.
Technical Paper

Research Alliances, A Strategy for Progress

1995-09-01
952146
In today's business climate rapid access to, and implementation of, new technology is essential to enhance competitive advantage. In the past, universities have been used for research contracts, but to fully utilize the intellectual resources of education institutions, it is essential to approach these relationships from a new basis: alliance. Alliances permit both parties to become active participants and achieve mutually beneficial goals. This paper will examine the drivers and challenges for industrial -- university alliances from both the industrial and academic perspectives.
Technical Paper

High-Pressure Injection Fuel System Wear Study

1998-02-23
980869
The critical particle size for a high-pressure injection system was determined. Various double-cut test dusts ranging from 0 to 5 μm to 10 to 20 μm were evaluated to determine which test dust caused the high-pressure system to fail. With the exception of the 0- to 5-μm test dust, all test dust ranges caused failure in the high-pressure injection system. Analysis of these evaluations revealed that the critical particle size, in initiating significant abrasive wear, is 6 to 7 μm. Wear curve formulas were generated for each evaluation. A formula was derived that allows the user to determine if the fuel filter effluent will cause harmful damage to the fuel system based on the number of 5-, 10-, and 15-μm particles per milliliter present. A methodology was developed to evaluate fuel filter performance as related to engine operating conditions. The abrasive methodology can evaluate online filter efficiency and associated wear in a high-pressure injection system.
Technical Paper

Physical Metallurgy Applications and Enhanced Machinability of Microalloyed V-Ti-N Forging Steels

1998-02-23
980884
Medium-carbon, microalloyed forging steels represent a cost effective replacement of quenched and tempered grades. Their strength properties are derived from precipitation during cooling from the forging temperature. Because of the relatively high carbon content, vanadium is the most suitable addition to achieve precipitation strengthening. The effectiveness of vanadium is enhanced by the presence of nitrogen. For components subjected to impact loading, improvement in toughness is achieved by refining austenitic grains, pinning their boundaries by means of dispersed titanium nitrides. Precipitation strengthened ferrite-pearlite steels exhibit superior machinability compared to that of quenched and tempered alloy steels. As a result, the total machining costs are substantially reduced compared to the costs of machining heat-treated steels. The frequency of tool breakage and tool changes decrease dramatically, virtually eliminating line scrap and unnecessary downtime.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variation of Losses in Intake Regions of IC Engines

1998-02-23
981025
Very large scale, 3D, viscous, turbulent flow simulations, involving 840,000 finite volume cells and the complete form of the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, were conducted to study the mechanisms responsible for total pressure losses in the entire intake system (inlet duct, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a straight-six diesel engine. A unique feature of this paper is the inclusion of physical mechanisms responsible for cylinder-to-cylinder variation of flows between different cylinders, namely, the end-cylinder (#1) and the middle cylinder (#3) that is in-line with the inlet duct. Present results are compared with cylinder #2 simulations documented in a recent paper by the Clemson group, Taylor, et al. (1997). A validated comprehensive computational methodology was used to generate grid independent and fully convergent results.
Technical Paper

IC Engine Intake Region Design Modifications for Loss Reduction Based on CFD Methods

1998-02-23
981026
Computational fluid dynamics methods are applied to the intake regions of a diesel engine in the design stage at Caterpillar. Using a complete, tested and validated computational methodology, fully viscous 3-D turbulent flow simulations are performed for three valve lifts, with the goal of identifying and understanding the physics underlying loss in the intake regions of IC engines. The results of these simulations lead to several design improvements in the intake region. These improvements are made to the computational domain, and flow simulations are again performed at three different valve lifts. Improvements in overall total pressure loss of between 5% and 33% are found in the computed results between the original and modified (improved) domains. Physical mechanisms responsible for these improvements are documented in detail.
Technical Paper

Concurrent Product and Process Design for Caterpillar Inboard Axles

1992-09-01
921661
Caterpillar's inboard brake and final drive axle responds to customers needs for a lifetime service brake removed from the often hostile environment encountered by exposed shoe-drum or caliper-disc brakes. A multi-disciplined team was assembled to select the single most appropriate axle configuration. That team was composed of members of the three worldwide facilities which would manufacture the axles. After selection of the configuration, the team approach was continued from development thru production. Concurrent product and process design was felt to be the most efficient way to provide the customer with an enclosed brake and to modernize our plants manufacturing operations. This paper will identify the methods used to develop a cost effective manufacturable axle. Working the product design and manufacturing process together provided for a more manufacturable axle, in a shorter time frame, with less start-up problems compared to the traditional approach.
Journal Article

The Influence of Diesel End-of-Injection Rate Shape on Combustion Recession

2015-04-14
2015-01-0795
The effect of the shape of the EOI was investigated through a pressure-modulated injection system in order to improve the understanding of the last portion of the traditional diesel diffusion combustion process. Here, the combustion recession at EOI is when the combustion of a mixing controlled diesel jet recedes backwards toward the fuel injector nozzle orifice. Combustion recession was observed using combustion luminosity imaging filtered at 309 nm to capture OH* chemiluminescence and 430 nm to capture CH* chemiluminescence, although soot Natural Luminosity (NL) will also be visible in these measurements. Experimental spray vessel results show that for relatively slow EOI decelerations below 1 ×106 to 2 ×106 m/s2, combustion strongly recesses completely back to the nozzle in both OH* and CH*/NL imaging. 1-D jet mixing calculations add support that this strong recession is indeed fuel rich.
Technical Paper

A New Parallel Cut-Cell Cartesian CFD Code for Rapid Grid Generation Applied to In-Cylinder Diesel Engine Simulations

2007-04-16
2007-01-0159
A new Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code has been developed in order to overcome the deficiencies of traditional grid generation and mesh motion methods. The new code uses a modified cut-cell Cartesian technique that eliminates the need for the computational grid to coincide with the geometry of interest. The code also includes state-of-the-art numerical techniques and sub-models for simulating the complex physical and chemical processes that occur in engines. Features such as shared and distributed memory parallelization, a multigrid pressure solver and user-specified grid embedding allow for efficient simulations while maintaining the grid resolution necessary for accurate engine modeling. In addition, a new Adaptive Grid Embedding (AGE) technique has been developed and implemented. Sub-models for turbulence, spray injection, spray breakup, liquid drop dynamics, ignition, combustion and emissions are also included in the code.
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