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Technical Paper


This paper traces the development of lubricants for Diesel engine and heavy duty service from the time the mobile Diesel became a production entity in this country. Beginning with a background of lubricants found acceptable for large Diesel engines in marine and stationary service, the trend in the supply of lubricants in subsequent automotive practices in the early 1930's led to difficulties in ring sticking, bearing corrosion and cylinder scuffing in the moderate speed, heavy duty engine seeking commercial favor at that time. The attempts to solve these problems, both as to engine improvements and lubricant selection, are reviewed historically. The logical development of additive oils followed the pattern of alloy steel achievements.
Technical Paper

What’s Ahead in Commercial Vehicle Powerplants

THIS authors sees a need, in the near future, for commercial vehicles with engines of 1000 to 1200 hp - powerplants that yield high outputs but require limited space. He sees an immediate need for more and more horsepower per cubic inch of piston displacement and per unit of space for the engine. He directs attention to six design potentials which may supply the answer: (1) the gas turbine; (2) supercharging; (3) aircooled diesels; (4) higher engine speeds; (5) 2-stroke diesel improvement; (6) compound engines. He also links the future development of the internal-combustion engine with basic improvement of components through simplification, calling for the elimination of extraneous gadgetry.
Technical Paper

A New Look at the Scoring Phenomena of Gears

THIS paper points out that the advantages of using light, nonadditive oils are often sacrificed because of lack of fundamental knowledge about gear-scoring problems. Most formulas that have been developed to determine the scoring resistance have been totally empirical and have proved inadequate for stringent design requirements. The author discusses the excellent correlation that exists between scoring test results and a hypothesis on the failure of straight mineral oils. This correlation also encompasses the test results of ball and roller scoring test machines, showing the probable universal application of the hypothesis. The method of approach to the scoring problem of gears as discussed in this paper is a fundamental one, which combines the factors affecting the conversion of frictional energy into surface temperature with gear tooth geometry, stiffness, and surface finish, and points a way to design gears of higher scoring resistance.
Technical Paper


TESTS on two series of diesel engines were run. The first group, consisting of four engines, had the stroke changed only, while the second group had the stroke/bore ratio changed and the displacement held constant. Results of the tests indicate that the longer stroke engines had more power, higher torque, and lower fuel consumption. Friction was high for the short-stroke engines at low speeds and for the longest stroke engine at high speeds. Theoretical analysis indicates that the optimum stroke/bore ratio for best performance may vary as the compression ratio and bore diameter are changed.
Technical Paper

Supercharged Diesel Performance versus Intake and Exhaust Conditions

THIS paper presents results which will answer many of the problems facing an engine manufacturer in the selection of the most suitable types and sizes of superchargers to use with a line of engines. Although performance curves of production model diesels are available, decisions are still needed in choosing peak supercharging pressures, drive means, and size and effectiveness of intercoolers, if any. The author describes the use of a typical model to determine response to variation in intake and exhaust conditions, resulting in data which will assist in evaluating engine potentials with any system of supercharging. Thus, supercharger selection for a particular line of engines is aided by knowledge of engine characteristics as a second-stage compressor.
Technical Paper

an evaluation of AFTERCOOLING in Turbocharged Diesel Engine Performance

AFTERCOOLING, coupled with higher pressure turbocharging can increase vehicle engine output. The author thinks that it is possible to anticipate diesel engines being run with compressors supplying air at pressure ratios higher than 2/1. Density ratio is the most important consideration in increasing pressure ratio, since the engine's output is dependent upon weight rather than volume of air supplied. Because the density of the compressed air is dependent upon its temperature at any pressure level, cooling the air after compression results in density increases. This paper describes various methods of after-cooling which increase engine output and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

A Billion Engine Hours On Aluminum Bearings

HIGH load-carrying ability and fatigue strength, good embeddabiltty and conformability, and resistance to wear, seizure, and corrosion are factors that sold them on aluminum for bearings, the authors report. Bonded steel backing, they say, makes aluminum bearings even better. Retaining aluminum's good properties, it improves some of its bad points and gives such advantages as: Reduced bearing clearances, compared with those used with solid-aluminum bearings. No life limit in operation below 5000 psi fatigue stress value. Less sensitivity to high oil temperatures. Negligible wear (after 29,000 hr in one test). Simpler and less expensive bearing-locating designs. Special excellence for high-load, high-speed applications.
Technical Paper

Tomorrow's Diesel - What Will It Offer?

After reviewing the present state of diesel engine design art as applied to vehicle applications, the paper analyzes future application requirements and outlines possible paths of engine development. In general, future requirements demand engines of higher output, lighter weight, better fuel economy, and smoke-free operation. A better understanding of vehicle load demands and careful matching of engine and drive-line will be required. Reference to extensive recent research developments shows that the diesel engine industry will be prepared to meet this challenge to provide the customer the best possible engine in terms of return on his investment.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar's Inertia Weld Process

A new friction welding process, Caterpillar Inertia Welding, is described in this paper. The two distinguishing characteristics of this form of welding are a continuously decreasing rotational velocity and a continuously changing torque at the weld interface. This enables the forging of many previously “difficult-to-weld” materials, such as superalloys. Such welds also exhibit excellent fatigue properties. Because this process produces high strength bonds in dissimilar materials, the designer is able to create composite parts using the special properties of each material in response to the needs of the design.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Drive Systems For Work Tool Machines

The work tool machines that are discussed are those that have been used to shape the face of the earth and can broadly be described as earthmoving machines. The paper then traces the evolution of drive systems for track-type tractors, motor graders, and loaders (track and wheel), with particular emphasis placed on matching drive systems to the vehicle so that the final result is a useful work tool machine that can be used efficiently in its intended work cycle. Finally, a survey is made of the various drive systems offered by industry today, together with predictions of future drive systems.
Technical Paper

Evolution of a Turbine Engine for Industrial Markets

A single-shaft, simple-cycle gas turbine engine has been developed to power 200 kw alternators for standby power and for applications where heat is needed. The engine was designed to be sold and serviced by distributors of earthmoving and industrial machinery. Where feasible, design practices of industrial piston engine powered generator sets were incorporated to facilitate installations of combinations of engine types, and to limit novel and unfamiliar features of the basic turbine engine to those that were considered essential. Individual components and complete engines, initially developed by a research group, have been subjected to a wide variety of laboratory tests to measure performance and develop reliability.
Technical Paper


TRACTORS operate in a wide range of conditions, from desert to swamp. At all times, the final-drive seals must keep the oil in and the dirt out. In this paper, the authors discuss the latest developments in seal design and the resulting improvements in performance. Efficient performance of a tractor final-drive seal depends upon a number of factors, including: bellows and bellows-boot operation, seal load and area, seal material, wear washer, and gasket structures.
Technical Paper

Surface Fatigue Research with the Geared Roller Test Machine

Fatigue failure of machine components subjected to high contact pressures is rapidly becoming recognized as a serious design limitation. Confusion has resulted from grouping three distinct types of contact fatigue failure under the term “pitting” A Geared Roller Test Machine is described that reproduced each of the three modes of failure. The stress-life relationships obtained for rollers tested under conditions of rolling plus sliding correlated well with actual gear performance. The sensitivity of the test to changes in material, micorstructure, and processing variables is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Two-Ring Piston Development

A new 2-ring piston package has been developed which has proven successful in internal combustion engines. The need for a compact piston arrangement is discussed along with the steps followed to arrive at excellent oil economy. The paper presents other advantages related to cost savings, lower wear, and reduced engine friction. The paper discusses applications of the compact piston package along with its advantages in designing compact engines.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Spur Gear Design

This paper demonstrates a way of applying an iterative computing technique to a typical engineering design problem, in such a way as to maximize a mathematical expression of the design criteria. Ways of writing this mathematical expression to express design criteria are explained through several illustrative examples. This technique of computer-aided design should allow the engineer to arrive at more than satisfactory designs in a minimum of engineering time.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Drive-Line Dynamics

Modern data acquisition methods combined with new testing and analysis techniques are revolutionizing product design and development. Detailed analysis of recorded vehicle drive-line data has given today's engineer new insights into drive-line dynamics. This paper discusses how vehicles can be analyzed as a series of torsional springs and inertia masses. A two axle, 300 hp, 15 cu yd earthmoving tractor scraper (model 621) is used to illustrate significant factors. Main emphasis is on drive-line resonant torsional vibrations and shock loading. Diesel engines as torsional vibration exciters and transmission clutches as the major shock load producers are covered in some detail. How analog computers can effectively be used to facilitate vehicle development is briefly discussed.