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Technical Paper

PIONEERING IN LUBRICANT ALLOYS (THE H.D. FACTOR IN ENGINE LUBRICATION)

1950-01-01
500044
This paper traces the development of lubricants for Diesel engine and heavy duty service from the time the mobile Diesel became a production entity in this country. Beginning with a background of lubricants found acceptable for large Diesel engines in marine and stationary service, the trend in the supply of lubricants in subsequent automotive practices in the early 1930's led to difficulties in ring sticking, bearing corrosion and cylinder scuffing in the moderate speed, heavy duty engine seeking commercial favor at that time. The attempts to solve these problems, both as to engine improvements and lubricant selection, are reviewed historically. The logical development of additive oils followed the pattern of alloy steel achievements.
Technical Paper

What’s Ahead in Commercial Vehicle Powerplants

1953-01-01
530222
THIS authors sees a need, in the near future, for commercial vehicles with engines of 1000 to 1200 hp - powerplants that yield high outputs but require limited space. He sees an immediate need for more and more horsepower per cubic inch of piston displacement and per unit of space for the engine. He directs attention to six design potentials which may supply the answer: (1) the gas turbine; (2) supercharging; (3) aircooled diesels; (4) higher engine speeds; (5) 2-stroke diesel improvement; (6) compound engines. He also links the future development of the internal-combustion engine with basic improvement of components through simplification, calling for the elimination of extraneous gadgetry.
Technical Paper

SOME EFFECTS OF STROKE AHD BORE ON DIESEL-ENGINE PERFORMANCE

1957-01-01
570048
TESTS on two series of diesel engines were run. The first group, consisting of four engines, had the stroke changed only, while the second group had the stroke/bore ratio changed and the displacement held constant. Results of the tests indicate that the longer stroke engines had more power, higher torque, and lower fuel consumption. Friction was high for the short-stroke engines at low speeds and for the longest stroke engine at high speeds. Theoretical analysis indicates that the optimum stroke/bore ratio for best performance may vary as the compression ratio and bore diameter are changed.
Technical Paper

Supercharged Diesel Performance versus Intake and Exhaust Conditions

1953-01-01
530209
THIS paper presents results which will answer many of the problems facing an engine manufacturer in the selection of the most suitable types and sizes of superchargers to use with a line of engines. Although performance curves of production model diesels are available, decisions are still needed in choosing peak supercharging pressures, drive means, and size and effectiveness of intercoolers, if any. The author describes the use of a typical model to determine response to variation in intake and exhaust conditions, resulting in data which will assist in evaluating engine potentials with any system of supercharging. Thus, supercharger selection for a particular line of engines is aided by knowledge of engine characteristics as a second-stage compressor.
Technical Paper

an evaluation of AFTERCOOLING in Turbocharged Diesel Engine Performance

1959-01-01
590049
AFTERCOOLING, coupled with higher pressure turbocharging can increase vehicle engine output. The author thinks that it is possible to anticipate diesel engines being run with compressors supplying air at pressure ratios higher than 2/1. Density ratio is the most important consideration in increasing pressure ratio, since the engine's output is dependent upon weight rather than volume of air supplied. Because the density of the compressed air is dependent upon its temperature at any pressure level, cooling the air after compression results in density increases. This paper describes various methods of after-cooling which increase engine output and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Tomorrow's Diesel - What Will It Offer?

1965-02-01
650479
After reviewing the present state of diesel engine design art as applied to vehicle applications, the paper analyzes future application requirements and outlines possible paths of engine development. In general, future requirements demand engines of higher output, lighter weight, better fuel economy, and smoke-free operation. A better understanding of vehicle load demands and careful matching of engine and drive-line will be required. Reference to extensive recent research developments shows that the diesel engine industry will be prepared to meet this challenge to provide the customer the best possible engine in terms of return on his investment.
Technical Paper

Evolution of a Turbine Engine for Industrial Markets

1966-02-01
660035
A single-shaft, simple-cycle gas turbine engine has been developed to power 200 kw alternators for standby power and for applications where heat is needed. The engine was designed to be sold and serviced by distributors of earthmoving and industrial machinery. Where feasible, design practices of industrial piston engine powered generator sets were incorporated to facilitate installations of combinations of engine types, and to limit novel and unfamiliar features of the basic turbine engine to those that were considered essential. Individual components and complete engines, initially developed by a research group, have been subjected to a wide variety of laboratory tests to measure performance and develop reliability.
Technical Paper

Two-Ring Piston Development

1969-02-01
690750
A new 2-ring piston package has been developed which has proven successful in internal combustion engines. The need for a compact piston arrangement is discussed along with the steps followed to arrive at excellent oil economy. The paper presents other advantages related to cost savings, lower wear, and reduced engine friction. The paper discusses applications of the compact piston package along with its advantages in designing compact engines.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Drive-Line Dynamics

1968-02-01
680584
Modern data acquisition methods combined with new testing and analysis techniques are revolutionizing product design and development. Detailed analysis of recorded vehicle drive-line data has given today's engineer new insights into drive-line dynamics. This paper discusses how vehicles can be analyzed as a series of torsional springs and inertia masses. A two axle, 300 hp, 15 cu yd earthmoving tractor scraper (model 621) is used to illustrate significant factors. Main emphasis is on drive-line resonant torsional vibrations and shock loading. Diesel engines as torsional vibration exciters and transmission clutches as the major shock load producers are covered in some detail. How analog computers can effectively be used to facilitate vehicle development is briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Particulate Emissions with a Light Extinction Opacity Meter

1983-02-01
830183
A system has been developed that provides real-time measurement of heavy-duty diesel engine particulates emitted during the EPA transient emission test cycle. This is accomplished by measuring the opacity of the exhaust/air mixture in an EPA type dilution tunnel with a light extinction opacity meter. Simultaneously, the temperature in the dilution tunnel is measured, and the ratio of the dilution tunnel temperature to a standard temperature is used to correct the opacity signal to standard conditions. The outstanding features of the system are that it produces a continuous record of when particulates were generated during the 20-minute transient cycle and that particulate cycle results are available immediately upon completion of the transient cycle without the requirement of conditioning and weighing filters. Results to date indicate correlation of the opacity-particulate monitor measured particulates to gravimetrically determined particulates to be within 10% for specific engines.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar's Folded Core Radiator

1986-04-01
860765
THE CATERPILLAR FOLDED CORE RADIATOR IS A NEW RADIATOR FOR VEHICLES AND STATIONARY ENGINE APPLICATIONS. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THIS DESIGN ARE TO GIVE THE USER AN INCREASED VALUE COOLING SYSTEM BY REDUCING RADIATOR REPAIR COSTS AND IMPROVING AIR-SIDE PLUGGING RESISTANCE. AS WELL AS PROVIDE THE VEHICLE DESIGNER WITH INCREASED APPLICATION DESIGN FLEXIBILITY. THIS IS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED WHILE MAINTAINING PERFORMANCE AND LIFE GOALS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONVENTIONAL RADIATOR. THE FOLDED CORE IS A MODULAR DESIGN HAVING THE MODULES INSTALLED AT AN ANGLE TO THE FAN AIR STREAM RESULTING IN THE FOLDED APPEARANCE. COMMON MODULE SIZES ARE USED ACROSS THE MANY RADIATOR APPLICATIONS REDUCING INVENTORY REQUIREMENTS AT THE ASSEMBLY PLANT AND PARTS DEPOTS AND INCREASING INDIVIDUAL MODULE PRODUCTION VOLUME. THIS RADIATOR DESIGN IS REVIEWED FROM CONCEPT TO PRODUCTION.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine/Fuels Combustion Performance and Emissions-A Cooperative Research Program

1985-10-01
852078
A cooperative research program has been completed evaluating the impact of fuel composition (volatility, aromatics and sulfur) on the combustion and emissions performance of a Caterpillar 3406B turbo-charged diesel engine, which is representative of diesel truck engines of the late 1980s. Tests included both steady-state and transient operation measuring regulated and unregulated emissions. The fuel set was blended using only commercially available refinery stocks typical of those which could be considered for use in distillate fuel. The compositions of the blends were selected so that direct measurements of the individual effects of 10% and 90% distillation temperatures, aromatic content, and sulfur content could be made independently. Engine combustion performance data indicated that all fuels operated satisfactorily; aromatic content was as high as 50% and cetane number as low as 39. Further, the cetane number did not predict the engine measured ignition delay in this program.
Technical Paper

Spherical Rod End Test Development and Results

1985-04-01
850808
This Paper: 1. Shows that the present spherical rod end manufacturer's rotational tests, which are intended to select the best bearing material, do not necessarily select the best materials for the push/pull linkage requirements of earthmoving machinery. 2. Emphasizes the need to perform push/pull comparative testing as defined in SAE J1367 on spherical rod ends to determine acceptable materials for earthmoving equipment application. This test is in contrast to rotational testing presently being performed by spherical rod end manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar's 1100 Series Direct Injection Diesel Engines

1969-02-01
690120
A new family of lightweight, high speed, direct injection, diesel truck engines has been developed for medium duty applications. These 4.5 in. bore, 90 deg vee, 8 cyl, naturally aspirated engines are rated at 150, 175, 200, and 225 hp. Three displacements are utilized within a common engine package size to produce these ratings. Several unique design features, including a two ring piston and a specially angled main bearing cap are incorporated in these engines.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Precombustion Chamber Engines

1968-02-01
680421
Diesel engine exhaust emission characteristics vary considerably with the overall design of the combustion and fuel injection systems. Emission measurements were made on total hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and smoke. The hydrocarbon measurements of the precombustion chamber engine are considerably lower than the direct injection engine. Less than five pounds of total hydrocarbons per 1000 gal of fuel are produced at rated conditions by all precombustion chamber engines studied. Precombustion chamber engines produce smaller quantities of the oxides of nitrogen when compared to direct injection engines. All diesels produced low carbon monoxide emissions. A novel technique for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of diesel exhaust odors is introduced. Exhaust odor intensity from the precombustion chamber engine is much less than that from the direct injection engine.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Very High Output (VHO) Multifuel Engine

1967-02-01
670520
A very high output (VHO), compression ignition engine family has been designed for the Military by Caterpillar Tractor Co., under contract with the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Center, Detroit Arsenal. The engines in this family have maximum parts interchangeability and feature a multifuel combustion system. The first model, the LVMS1050, has been built and tested. This engine develops 960 bhp, weighs 2.5 lb per hp, and produces 29.5 hp per cu ft of volume. This paper discusses the family design and LVMS1050 development.
Technical Paper

A Multifuel Combustion System for High Performance Prechamber Diesels

1964-01-01
640068
Two high specific output diesel engines designed for the Military -- the LVDS-1100 and LDS-750 engines, which are of V-8 and 5-cyl in-line configuration, respectively -- were developed by Caterpillar Tractor Co. under contract with U.S. Army Tank Automotive Center at Detroit Arsenal. This paper covers the development work, also sponsored by ATAC, required to adapt these engines for operation using regular grade gasoline in addition to the diesel and CIE fuels for which they were originally designed. Test techniques used, a description of some interesting combustion systems tried, and data obtained with the selected arrangement are included. The engine has excellent performance and starting characteristics with any of the three fuels.
Technical Paper

CATERPILLAR 3400 SERIES ENGINES

1974-02-01
740038
A new family of heavy duty diesel engines, the 3400 Series, has been developed by Caterpillar Tractor Co. The family includes Inline 6 cylinder, V-8 and V-12 engines covering the 270-750 horsepower range. Stringent program objectives were established in the areas of durability, reliability, commonality, flexibility and serviceability within defined limits of cost and weight. Design, development and manufacturing planning were closely coordinated to ensure economical manufacturing with high volume tooling. This paper deals with the design, development and certain aspects of engine applications.
Technical Paper

Some Diesel Exhaust Reactivity Information Derived by Gas Chromatography

1974-02-01
740530
Chromatographic analysis of diesel exhaust indicates a number of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, below C6. Using reactivity index as a criterion, much of the diesel exhaust reactivity can be attributed to ethylene and propylene caused by the thermal decomposition of the fuel. Hydrocarbons in the C4-C7 range, including high relative reactivity olefins, are generally low in volume concentration and therefore contribute little to the overall exhaust reactivity. Hydrocarbons, in terms of parts per million carbon above C7 are low in present diesel engine designs, so individual volume concentrations are generally fractional parts per million. Reactivity per horsepower-hour from diesel engine exhaust is less than that from the one small industrial gasoline engine tested by the heavy-duty truck diesel engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Closed Center Hydraulic System For An Articulated Motor Grader

1976-02-01
760429
THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS for the Caterpillar “G” Series Motor Graders were designed to provide for maximum operator comfort, ease of operation, and optimum control of the vehicle and implements. The use of high pressure closed center systems on these machines produces rapid system response and high hydraulic horsepower to the implement cylinders and motors, and operates with minimum size control components. Components were designed to meet specific system requirements for functional performance, reliability of operation, size and placement on the machine. System goals were met through the use of a variable displacement pressure compensated pump, controlled flow four-way implement valves, and a hydrostatic steering system.
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