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Technical Paper

Supercharged Diesel Performance versus Intake and Exhaust Conditions

1953-01-01
530209
THIS paper presents results which will answer many of the problems facing an engine manufacturer in the selection of the most suitable types and sizes of superchargers to use with a line of engines. Although performance curves of production model diesels are available, decisions are still needed in choosing peak supercharging pressures, drive means, and size and effectiveness of intercoolers, if any. The author describes the use of a typical model to determine response to variation in intake and exhaust conditions, resulting in data which will assist in evaluating engine potentials with any system of supercharging. Thus, supercharger selection for a particular line of engines is aided by knowledge of engine characteristics as a second-stage compressor.
Technical Paper

an evaluation of AFTERCOOLING in Turbocharged Diesel Engine Performance

1959-01-01
590049
AFTERCOOLING, coupled with higher pressure turbocharging can increase vehicle engine output. The author thinks that it is possible to anticipate diesel engines being run with compressors supplying air at pressure ratios higher than 2/1. Density ratio is the most important consideration in increasing pressure ratio, since the engine's output is dependent upon weight rather than volume of air supplied. Because the density of the compressed air is dependent upon its temperature at any pressure level, cooling the air after compression results in density increases. This paper describes various methods of after-cooling which increase engine output and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Evolution of a Turbine Engine for Industrial Markets

1966-02-01
660035
A single-shaft, simple-cycle gas turbine engine has been developed to power 200 kw alternators for standby power and for applications where heat is needed. The engine was designed to be sold and serviced by distributors of earthmoving and industrial machinery. Where feasible, design practices of industrial piston engine powered generator sets were incorporated to facilitate installations of combinations of engine types, and to limit novel and unfamiliar features of the basic turbine engine to those that were considered essential. Individual components and complete engines, initially developed by a research group, have been subjected to a wide variety of laboratory tests to measure performance and develop reliability.
Technical Paper

RESILIENT FACE SEALS FOR TRACTOR FINAL DRIVES

1958-01-01
580012
TRACTORS operate in a wide range of conditions, from desert to swamp. At all times, the final-drive seals must keep the oil in and the dirt out. In this paper, the authors discuss the latest developments in seal design and the resulting improvements in performance. Efficient performance of a tractor final-drive seal depends upon a number of factors, including: bellows and bellows-boot operation, seal load and area, seal material, wear washer, and gasket structures.
Technical Paper

Two-Ring Piston Development

1969-02-01
690750
A new 2-ring piston package has been developed which has proven successful in internal combustion engines. The need for a compact piston arrangement is discussed along with the steps followed to arrive at excellent oil economy. The paper presents other advantages related to cost savings, lower wear, and reduced engine friction. The paper discusses applications of the compact piston package along with its advantages in designing compact engines.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Particulate Emissions with a Light Extinction Opacity Meter

1983-02-01
830183
A system has been developed that provides real-time measurement of heavy-duty diesel engine particulates emitted during the EPA transient emission test cycle. This is accomplished by measuring the opacity of the exhaust/air mixture in an EPA type dilution tunnel with a light extinction opacity meter. Simultaneously, the temperature in the dilution tunnel is measured, and the ratio of the dilution tunnel temperature to a standard temperature is used to correct the opacity signal to standard conditions. The outstanding features of the system are that it produces a continuous record of when particulates were generated during the 20-minute transient cycle and that particulate cycle results are available immediately upon completion of the transient cycle without the requirement of conditioning and weighing filters. Results to date indicate correlation of the opacity-particulate monitor measured particulates to gravimetrically determined particulates to be within 10% for specific engines.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar's Folded Core Radiator

1986-04-01
860765
THE CATERPILLAR FOLDED CORE RADIATOR IS A NEW RADIATOR FOR VEHICLES AND STATIONARY ENGINE APPLICATIONS. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THIS DESIGN ARE TO GIVE THE USER AN INCREASED VALUE COOLING SYSTEM BY REDUCING RADIATOR REPAIR COSTS AND IMPROVING AIR-SIDE PLUGGING RESISTANCE. AS WELL AS PROVIDE THE VEHICLE DESIGNER WITH INCREASED APPLICATION DESIGN FLEXIBILITY. THIS IS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED WHILE MAINTAINING PERFORMANCE AND LIFE GOALS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONVENTIONAL RADIATOR. THE FOLDED CORE IS A MODULAR DESIGN HAVING THE MODULES INSTALLED AT AN ANGLE TO THE FAN AIR STREAM RESULTING IN THE FOLDED APPEARANCE. COMMON MODULE SIZES ARE USED ACROSS THE MANY RADIATOR APPLICATIONS REDUCING INVENTORY REQUIREMENTS AT THE ASSEMBLY PLANT AND PARTS DEPOTS AND INCREASING INDIVIDUAL MODULE PRODUCTION VOLUME. THIS RADIATOR DESIGN IS REVIEWED FROM CONCEPT TO PRODUCTION.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine/Fuels Combustion Performance and Emissions-A Cooperative Research Program

1985-10-01
852078
A cooperative research program has been completed evaluating the impact of fuel composition (volatility, aromatics and sulfur) on the combustion and emissions performance of a Caterpillar 3406B turbo-charged diesel engine, which is representative of diesel truck engines of the late 1980s. Tests included both steady-state and transient operation measuring regulated and unregulated emissions. The fuel set was blended using only commercially available refinery stocks typical of those which could be considered for use in distillate fuel. The compositions of the blends were selected so that direct measurements of the individual effects of 10% and 90% distillation temperatures, aromatic content, and sulfur content could be made independently. Engine combustion performance data indicated that all fuels operated satisfactorily; aromatic content was as high as 50% and cetane number as low as 39. Further, the cetane number did not predict the engine measured ignition delay in this program.
Technical Paper

Spherical Rod End Test Development and Results

1985-04-01
850808
This Paper: 1. Shows that the present spherical rod end manufacturer's rotational tests, which are intended to select the best bearing material, do not necessarily select the best materials for the push/pull linkage requirements of earthmoving machinery. 2. Emphasizes the need to perform push/pull comparative testing as defined in SAE J1367 on spherical rod ends to determine acceptable materials for earthmoving equipment application. This test is in contrast to rotational testing presently being performed by spherical rod end manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Precombustion Chamber Engines

1968-02-01
680421
Diesel engine exhaust emission characteristics vary considerably with the overall design of the combustion and fuel injection systems. Emission measurements were made on total hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and smoke. The hydrocarbon measurements of the precombustion chamber engine are considerably lower than the direct injection engine. Less than five pounds of total hydrocarbons per 1000 gal of fuel are produced at rated conditions by all precombustion chamber engines studied. Precombustion chamber engines produce smaller quantities of the oxides of nitrogen when compared to direct injection engines. All diesels produced low carbon monoxide emissions. A novel technique for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of diesel exhaust odors is introduced. Exhaust odor intensity from the precombustion chamber engine is much less than that from the direct injection engine.
Technical Paper

Some Diesel Exhaust Reactivity Information Derived by Gas Chromatography

1974-02-01
740530
Chromatographic analysis of diesel exhaust indicates a number of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, below C6. Using reactivity index as a criterion, much of the diesel exhaust reactivity can be attributed to ethylene and propylene caused by the thermal decomposition of the fuel. Hydrocarbons in the C4-C7 range, including high relative reactivity olefins, are generally low in volume concentration and therefore contribute little to the overall exhaust reactivity. Hydrocarbons, in terms of parts per million carbon above C7 are low in present diesel engine designs, so individual volume concentrations are generally fractional parts per million. Reactivity per horsepower-hour from diesel engine exhaust is less than that from the one small industrial gasoline engine tested by the heavy-duty truck diesel engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Closed Center Hydraulic System For An Articulated Motor Grader

1976-02-01
760429
THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS for the Caterpillar “G” Series Motor Graders were designed to provide for maximum operator comfort, ease of operation, and optimum control of the vehicle and implements. The use of high pressure closed center systems on these machines produces rapid system response and high hydraulic horsepower to the implement cylinders and motors, and operates with minimum size control components. Components were designed to meet specific system requirements for functional performance, reliability of operation, size and placement on the machine. System goals were met through the use of a variable displacement pressure compensated pump, controlled flow four-way implement valves, and a hydrostatic steering system.
Technical Paper

Amplitude Distribution Analyzer for the Measurement of Gearing Load Spectra

1972-02-01
720800
Gearing load spectra data collected under actual working conditions help a designer predict the fatigue life of power train components. Considerable time was required in the past to collect and reduce these data to a form suitable for design use. A vehicle mounted instrumentation system consisting of a strain gaged shaft, a shaft encoder-slip ring assembly, and an amplitude distribution analyzer, was developed which performs load measurements. At the test's conclusion, it provides a spectrum analysis in printed histogram form.
Technical Paper

The Caterpillar imep Meter and Engine Friction

1973-02-01
730150
A report on a detailed evaluation of cylinder pressure measurement was made in 1967 by the author. At the beginning of that paper, the primary importance of cylinder pressure measurement was pointed out. Pressure is the means by which work is extracted from the gases; the cycle is known only to the extent that this work function ∫PdV is known. At the end of that paper, it was concluded that cylinder pressure could be measured accurately enough to determine imep and that complete electronic determination of imep was needed. A system for determining imep electronically with excellent accuracy has been developed and has been in use for several years. This paper describes the Caterpillar indicated mean effective pressure (imep) meter and gives a sample of the information it can provide.
Technical Paper

How A Diesel Engine Rates Itself

1959-01-01
590029
SETTING ratings for diesel engines takes laboratory testing and field experience for critical parameters such as smoke, piston temperature, and exhaust temperature. Rating is based upon theoretical considerations, plus the approval of the engine itself. Factors in rating considerations include a knowledge of the application of the engine, and whether its use is to be intermittent or continuous. Ratings by the manufacturer are not always accepted by the engine user, however. The user will run the engine at the load most profitable for him, which may be above or below that recommended by the manufacturer.
Technical Paper

Methods for Evaluating Requirements and Errors in Cylinder Pressure Measurement

1967-02-01
670008
The requirements for cylinder pressure measurement for mechanical load, imep, and cycle analysis are developed. Methods for determining errors in transducers are presented, and the results are shown. The tests include passage error, hysteresis, nonlinearity, mounting strains, thermal strain, and twist in the crankshaft. Theories are developed to predict errors due to time or phase delay, passage, and thermal strain. The theory of the balanced pressure indicator is developed and the minimum delay and pressure error are calculated. Read-out systems are evaluated. Areas needing improvement are pointed out and specifications for the ideal pressure transducer are presented.
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