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Technical Paper

A Hybrid Combustion Control Strategy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Based on the Technologies of Multi-Pulse Injections, Variable Boost Pressure and Retarded Intake Valve Closing Timing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1382
Combustion control strategy for high efficiency and low emissions in a heavy duty (H D) diesel engine was investigated experimentally in a single cylinder test engine with a common rail fuel system, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system, boost system and retarded intake valve closing timing actuator. For the operation loads of IMEPg (Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) less than 1.1 MPa the low temperature combustion (LTC) with high rate of EGR was applied. The fuel injection modes of either single injection or multi-pulse injections, boost pressure and retarded intake valve closing timing (RIVCT) were also coupled with the engine operation condition loads for high efficiency and low emissions. A higher boost pressure played an important role in improving fuel efficiency and obtaining ultra-low soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Research in the Effects of Intake Manifold Length and Chamber Shape on Performance for an Atkinson Cycle Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1086
In order to improve the fuel consumption and expand the range of low fuel consumption area of a 1.5L Atkinson cycle PFI engine, the effect of the intake manifold length and chamber shape on the engine performance is investigated by setting up a GT-power (1-D) and an AVL-Fire (3-D) computational model which are calibrated with experimental data. After this the new engine was transformed to the test bench to do the calibration experiment. The results demonstrate that the intake manifold case_1 (the length is 300mm, side intake form) matched with a new designed chamber improves combustion in cylinder with a range 1.6∼7.4g/(kW•h) reduced in fuel consumption of speed that has been studied; the case_3 (the length is 100mm, intermediate intake form) matched with the new designed chamber with a range 3.86∼7g/(kW•h) reduced in fuel consumption of speed that has been studied. Both case_1 and case_3 expand the range of low fuel consumption area significantly.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Sub/Supercritical Gasoline and Iso-Octane Jets in High Temperature Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0289
Based on the temperature and pressure in the cylinder of GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines under the common operating conditions, jets´ characteristics of gasoline and iso-octane at different fuel temperatures under the high ambient temperature were studied by means of high-speed photography and striation method. It is found that the supercritical gasoline jet shows the morphological collapse of jet center and the protrusion of the front surface, but the iso-octane jet doesn´t. Meanwhile, as the fuel temperature rises, the flash boiling and the interference between adjacent plumes affect the gasoline jet, and cause the center of the jet to form a high-speed and low-pressure zone, hence the air entrainment in this region contributes to the collapse of jets. The collapse and convergence of jets´ morphology are the main reasons for the change of penetration and cone angle.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Single Fuel Droplet Impact on Oil Film

2019-04-02
2019-01-0304
In order to better understand the spray impingement behavior of the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, this paper used the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) test method to conduct basic research on the fuel droplet impact onto the oil film. The effects of different incident droplet Weber number, dimensionless oil film thickness and oil film viscosity on the morphology of oil film after impact were investigated. And the composition of splashing droplets after impingement was analyzed. The morphology of oil film after impact was divided into three categories: stable crown, delayed splash crown, and prompt splash crown. The stable crown has only splashing fuel droplets, the splashing droplets of delayed splash crown are consist of fuel and oil film. The splashing droplets of prompt splash crown mainly include the oil film. It is shown that the larger the Weber number of incident droplets, the larger the dimensionless crown height and diameter, the easier the oil film will splash.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Impact of Exhaust Turbine Redesign, for Narrow VGT Operating Range, on the Performance of Diesel Engines with Assisted Turbocharger

2019-04-02
2019-01-0326
Electrically assisted turbochargers are a promising technology for improving boost response of turbocharged engines. These systems include a turbocharger shaft mounted electric motor/generator. In the assist mode, electrical energy is applied to the turbocharger shaft via the motor function, while in the regenerative mode energy can be extracted from the shaft via the generator function, hence these systems are also referred to as regenerative electrically assisted turbochargers (REAT). REAT allows simultaneous improvement of boost response and fuel economy of boosted engines. This is achieved by optimally scheduling the electrical assist and regeneration actions. REAT also allows the exhaust turbine to operate within a narrow range of optimal vane positions relative to the unassisted variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The ability to operate within a narrow range of VGT vane positions allows an opportunity for a more optimal turbine design for a REAT system.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Multi-Scale Simulation for Large-Scale Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

2019-04-02
2019-01-0381
PEMFC (proton exchange membrane or polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) is a potential candidate as a future power source for automobile applications. Water and thermal management is important to PEMFC operation. Numerical models, which describe the transport and electrochemical phenomena occurring in PEMFCs, are important to the water and thermal management of fuel cells. 3D (three-dimensional) multi-scale CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models take into account the real geometry structure and thus are capable of predicting real operation/performance. In this study, a 3D multi-phase CFD model is employed to simulate a large-scale PEMFC (109.93 cm2) under various operating conditions. More specifically, the effects of operating pressure (1.0-4.0 atm) on fuel cell performance and internal water and thermal characteristics are studied in detail under two inlet humidities, 100% and 40%.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-2D Transient Multiphase Modeling of Cold Start Processes in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

2019-04-02
2019-01-0390
It’s well known that startup process of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) under subzero temperature is extremely significant because of its influence on fuel cell performance and durability. In the study, a quasi-2D numerical model is developed and dynamic equations of mass conservation, energy conservation, membrane water conservation, ice conservation, species conservation are all considered. Three different hydrogen supply modes are studied in detail: flow-through anode (FTA) mode, dead-ended anode (DEA) mode and off-gas recirculation (OR) mode. It is found that the local current density (LCD) and temperature distribution vary remarkably along flow channel in OR mode as t > 500s due to nitrogen crossover and accumulation. During the cold start operation, the DEA mode and OR mode hold more water in anode catalyst layer (ACL) which reduces the effects of hydraulic permeation, resulting in more ice formation in cathode catalyst layer (CCL) and slower temperature rising.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell with Metal Foam Flow Field

2019-04-02
2019-01-0388
Compared with conventional flow field, metal foam has been increasingly used for gas distributor in the PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell due to its high porosity and conductivity, which significantly enhances the species transport under high current density condition. In this study, the cell performances with metal foam and graphite parallel flow field are compared under normal and subzero temperature conditions. Besides, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is recorded to characterize the Ohmic, polarization and polarization resistance. Under normal condition, the cell with metal foam exhibits three times better performance than the one with parallel flow field. Meanwhile, the effects of inlet gas humidity and flow rates on cell performance are also studied, indicating that the cathode flooding easily occurs due to its difficult water removal. However, the high flow rate can greatly ease the cathode water flooding.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Stoichiometric Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0960
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), can improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. However, the difficulty in combustion phasing control and violent combustion at high loads limit the commercial application of CAI combustion. To overcome these problems, stratified mixture, which is rich around the central spark plug and lean around the cylinder wall, is formed through port fuel injection and direct injection of gasoline. In this condition, rich mixture is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition, while the unburned lean mixture auto-ignites due to the increased in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, i.e., stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Dilution Boundary Expansion Mechanism of SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Based on Micro Flame Ignition Strategy

2019-04-02
2019-01-0954
In decade years, Spark Ignition-Controlled Auto Ignition (SI-CAI) hybrid combustion, also called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) has shown its high-efficiency and low emissions advantages. However, high dilution causes the problem of unstable initial ignition and flame propagation, which leads to high cyclic variation of heat release and IMEP. The instability of SI-CAI hybrid combustion limits its dilution degree and its ability to improve the thermal efficiency. In order to solve instability problems and expand the dilution boundary of hybrid combustion, micro flame ignition (MFI) strategy is applied in gasoline hybrid combustion engines. Small amount of Dimethyl Ether (DME) chosen as the ignition fuel is injected into cylinder to form micro flame kernel, which can stabilize the ignition combustion process.
Technical Paper

The Application of Controlled Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engines -The Challenges and Solutions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0949
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to simultaneously reduce the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline engines. However, narrow operating region in loads and speeds is one of the challenges for the commercial application of CAI combustion to gasoline engines. Therefore, the extension of loads and speeds is an important prerequisite for the commercial application of CAI combustion. The effect of intake charge boosting, charge stratification and spark-assisted ignition on the operating range in CAI mode was reviewed. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion is one form to achieve CAI combustion under the conditions of highly diluted mixture caused by the flame in the stratified mixture with the help of spark plug.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Failures of Engine Piston Subjected to Severe Knock

2019-04-02
2019-01-0705
The previous study indicates that the detonation waves generated by acetylene/oxygen mixture can converge in the combustion chamber. In order to verify the destructive effect of detonation wave convergence on piston materials, the detonation bomb device was modified to fundamentally investigate the material failures of aluminum alloy for pistons. The results show that the specimens are destroyed in the middle and edge region after dozens of detonations, which is consistent with the typical characteristics of the piston failures in engines. Therefore, the hypothesis that failures of piston material is caused by the detonation wave convergence is verified.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Knock Intensity and Knock-Limited Thermal Efficiency of Different Combustion Chambers in Stoichiometric Operation LNG Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1137
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) engine could provide both reduced operating cost and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Stoichiometric operation with EGR and the three-way catalyst has become a potential approach for commercial LNG engines to meet the Euro VI emissions legislation. In the current study, numerical investigations on the knocking tendency of several combustion chambers with different geometries and corresponding performances were conducted using CONVERGE CFD code with G-equation flame propagation model coupled with a reduced natural gas chemical kinetic mechanism. The results showed that the CFD modeling approach could predict the knock phenomenon in LNG engines reasonably well under different thermodynamic and flow field conditions.
Technical Paper

Optical Experiments on Strong Knocking Combustion in Rapid Compression Machines with Different Fuels

2019-04-02
2019-01-1142
Nowadays the strong knocking combustion involving destructive pressure wave or shock wave has become the main bottleneck for highly boosted engines when pursuing high thermal efficiency. However, its fundamental mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, synchronization measurements through simultaneous pressure acquisition and high-speed direct photography were performed to comparatively investigate the strong knocking combustion of iso-octane and propane in a rapid compression machine with flat piston design. The pressure characteristics and visualized images of autoignition and reaction wave propagation were compared, and the correlations between thermodynamic trajectories and mixture reactivity progress were analyzed. The results show that iso-octane behaves a greater propensity to strong knocking combustion than propane at similar target pressures.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Potential of Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) Coupled with Double Diesel Direct-Injection Strategy for Meeting High Fuel Efficiency with Ultra-Low Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Engine at High Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-1166
The potential of diesel/gasoline RCCI combustion coupled with late intake valve closing (LIVC) and double direct injection of diesel for meeting high fuel efficiency with ultra-low emissions was investigated in this study. The study was aiming at high load operation in a heavy-duty diesel engine. Based on the reactivity stratification of RCCI combustion, the employment of double injection of diesel fuel provided concentration stratification of the high-reactivity fuel, which is to further realize effective control of the combustion process. Meanwhile, late intake valve closing (LIVC) strategy is introduced to control the maximum in-cylinder pressure and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Knock Threshold Detection in Turbocharged Gasoline Engine Using EEMD and Bispectrum

2016-04-05
2016-01-0643
Knock threshold detection is the key of closed loop control of ignition in gasoline engine, and it is also the difficult point in knock measurement. In this paper, an investigation of knock detection in turbocharged gasoline engine using bispectrum slice and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based on the engine cylinder head vibration signals is presented. By adding some finite amplitude Gaussian white noises to the signal, EEMD keeps the signal continuous in different time span, and therefore the mode mixing inhering in the classical empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is alleviated. Power spectrum density (PSD) estimation is used to determine the band range of the resonance frequency generated by knock component. EEMD is used to decompose the original signals, the time-frequency characteristics of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) are analyzed using Continues Wavelet Transform (CWT) due to its excellent time-frequency resolution.
Journal Article

Three-Dimensional Simulation of Water Management for High-Performance Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

2018-04-03
2018-01-1309
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is widely regarded as the most promising candidate for the next generation power source of automobile, after the pure battery electric vehicle. In this study, the gas and liquid two-phase flow in channels and porous electrodes inside PEMFC coupled with electrochemical reaction is simulated in detail, in which the anisotropic gas diffusion layer (GDL) is also considered. In the simulation, the inlet reactant gas molar concentration is calculated based on the real inlet pressure, which is more practical than specifying a constant value in previous simulation. Meanwhile, the effect of electro-osmotic drag on membrane water content distribution is treated to be a convection term in the conservation equation, instead of a source term as usually used.
Technical Paper

Advanced Gasoline Engine Management Platform for Euro IV & CHN IV Emission Regulation

2008-06-23
2008-01-1704
The increasingly stringent requirements in relation to emission reduction and onboard diagnostics are pushing the Chinese automotive industry toward more innovative solutions and a rapid increase in electronic control performance. To manage the system complexity the architecture will require being well structure on hardware and software level. The paper introduces GEMS-K1 (Gasoline Engine Management System - Kit 1). GEMS-K1 is a platform being compliant with Euro IV emission regulation for gasoline engines. The application software is developed using modeling language, the code is automatically generated from the model. The driver software has a well defined structure including microcontroller abstraction layer and ECU abstraction layer. The hardware is following design rules to be robust, 100% testable and easy to manufacture. The electronic components use the latest innovation in terms of architecture and technologies.
Technical Paper

Organic Compound Exhaust Analysis from Ethanol-Gasoline Fueled Motorcycle

2005-10-12
2005-32-0055
Ethanol-Gasoline was being promoted in China. Ethanol as substitute fuel could save such nature resource that cannot be regenerated. At the same time, oxygen additives also have potential dangerous, such as, poisonous organic compound. In this paper, a typical 125 mL four stroke single cylinder motorcycle was driven on chassis dynamometer at 5 different stable conditions which is specified in ECE 40 driving cycle. At each stably driving condition, raw gas from exhaust pipe was collected in corresponding bags respectively. Those samples were analyzed by means of gas chromatogram and mass spectrum analyzer (Agilent GC6890-MS5973). Poisonous ethanol compound such as benzene, toluene had been found in samples from ethanol blended fueled motorcycle exhausts and compared with samples from that of pure gasoline.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Consumption Standards for Chinese Light-Duty Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-0534
To restrain the phenomenal increase in oil consumption in China, the Chinese government called for measures to reduce oil consumption of the road transportation sector through adopting vehicle fuel consumption standards. This paper describes the development of China's first set of fuel consumption standards for light-duty passenger vehicles. The adopted standards cover M1 class vehicles, which, according to European definition (and adopted by China), include passenger cars, minivans, and sports utility vehicles (SUVs). In particular, we present the goal, technical background, structure, and values of the adopted standards. We also present their potential effect on oil use reduction. The standards are set in liters of fuel consumption per 100 km for individual vehicle weight categories. The standards are maximum fuel consumption values for given vehicle weight categories.
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