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Technical Paper

A Theoretical Investigation of the Combustion of PRF90 under the Flexible Cylinder Engine Mode

2017-03-28
2017-01-1027
On-board fuel reforming offers a prospective clean combustion mode for the engines. The flexible cylinder engine strategy (FCE) is a new kind of such mode. In this paper, the combustion of the primary reference fuel of PRF90 was theoretically investigated in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to validate the FCE mode, mainly focusing on the ignition delay time, the flame speed, and the emissions. The simulations were performed by using the CHEMKIN2.0 package to demonstrate the fuel reforming process in the flexible cylinder, the cooling effect on the reformed products, and the combustions of the mixture of the fresh fuel and the reformed products in the normal cylinders. It was found that the FCE mode decreased the ignition delay time of the fuel by about 35 crank angles at a typical engine condition.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Combustion Characteristics of Methane/Gasoline Dual-Fuel in a SI Engine at Different Load Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1140
Methane as an attractive alternative fuel offers the most potential in clean combustion and low CO2 emissions. In this work, combustion characteristics of methane/gasoline dual-fuel were investigated in a spark-ignited engine with port-injection of methane and direct-injection of gasoline, allowing for variations in methane addition and excess air coefficient. Engine experimental results showed that under low load conditions, as methane mass rate was raised, there was a promotion in methane/gasoline dual-fuel combustion, and this became more obvious at lean conditions. Similar observations were also obtained when the engine was operated at intermediate load conditions, but a prolonged combustion duration was found with the methane addition. Further analysis showed that the promotion of methane/gasoline dual-fuel combustion with methane addition mainly occurred in the early stage of combustion, especially for lean conditions.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Combustion Control Strategy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Based on the Technologies of Multi-Pulse Injections, Variable Boost Pressure and Retarded Intake Valve Closing Timing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1382
Combustion control strategy for high efficiency and low emissions in a heavy duty (H D) diesel engine was investigated experimentally in a single cylinder test engine with a common rail fuel system, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system, boost system and retarded intake valve closing timing actuator. For the operation loads of IMEPg (Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) less than 1.1 MPa the low temperature combustion (LTC) with high rate of EGR was applied. The fuel injection modes of either single injection or multi-pulse injections, boost pressure and retarded intake valve closing timing (RIVCT) were also coupled with the engine operation condition loads for high efficiency and low emissions. A higher boost pressure played an important role in improving fuel efficiency and obtaining ultra-low soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Late Intake Valve Closing Timing on Thermal Efficiency and Emissions Based on a Two-stage Turbocharger Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0276
This paper investigated the effects of late intake valve closing timing (IVCT) and two-stage turbocharger systems matching based on partially premixed combustion strategy. Tests were performed on a 12-liter L6 heavy-duty engine at loads up to 10 bar BMEP at various speed. IVCT (where IVCT is -80°ATDC, -65°ATDC and -55°ATDC at 1300 rpm, 1600 rpm and 1900 rpm, respectively) lowered the intake and exhaust difference pressure, reducing pumping loss and improved the effective thermal efficiency by 1%, 1.5% and 2% at BMEP of 5 bar at 1300 rpm, 1600 rpm and 1900 rpm. For certain injection timings and EGR rate, it is found that a significant reduction in soot (above 30%) and NOx (above 70%) emissions by means of IVCT. This is due to that IVCT lowered effective compression ratio and temperature during the compression stroke, resulting in a longer ignition delay as the fuel mixed more homogeneous with the charge air ahead of ignition.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modeling of Soot Formation with Highlight in Effects of Surface Activity on Soot Growth for Diesel Engine Partially Premixed Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1104
In this study, Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) on a modified heavy-duty diesel engine was realized by hybrid combustion control strategy with flexible fuel injection timing, injection rate pattern modulation and high ratio of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at different engine loads. It features with different degrees of fuel/air mixture stratifications. The very low soot emissions of the experiments called for further understanding on soot formation mechanism so that to promote the capability of prediction. A new soot model was developed with highlight in effects of surface activity on soot growth for soot formation prediction in partially premixed combustion diesel engine. According to previous results from literatures on the importance of acetylene as growth specie of PAH and soot surface growth, a gas-phase reduced kinetic model of acetylene formation was developed and integrated into the new soot model.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on the Fuel Economy Improvement of a Natural Gas SI Engine at the Lean Burn and the Stoichiometric Operation both with EGR under the Premise of Meeting EU6 Emission Legislation

2015-09-01
2015-01-1958
In order to further study the effects of air and EGR dilution on the fuel economy improvement of natural gas engines under the premise of meeting EU6 legislation, a comparison between stoichiometric operation with EGR and lean burn operation with and without EGR has been conducted at 1600rpm 50% and 75% load. The conversion efficiencies of the catalysts for both NOx and CH4 emissions are assumed at 90% for lean burn operation. Experiment results indicate that under the condition of meeting both NOx and CH4 predetermined engine-out emissions limits for EU6 legislation, lean operation with a small fraction of EGR dilution enables more advanced combustion phasing compared to pure lean operation, which results in much better fuel economy, thus further improvement compared to stoichiometric operation is achieved.
Technical Paper

Achievement of Diesel Low Temperature Combustion through Higher Boost and EGR Control Coupled with Miller Cycle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0383
Diesel engines generally tend to produce a very low level of NOx and soot through the application of Miller Cycle, which is mainly due to the low temperature combustion (LTC) atmosphere resulting from the Miller Cycle utilization. A CFD model was established and calibrated against the experimental data for a part load operation at 3000 r/min. A designed set of Miller-LTC combustion modes were analyzed. It is found that a higher boost pressure coupled with EGR can further tap the potential of Miller-LTC cycle, improving and expanding the Miller-LTC operation condition. The simulated results indicated that the variation of Miller timings can decrease the regions of high temperatures and then improve the levels and trade-off relationship of NOx and soot. The in-cylinder peak pressure and NOx emissions were increased dramatically though the problem of insufficient intake charge was resolved by the enhanced intake pressure that is equivalent to dual-stage turbo-charging.
Technical Paper

Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Evolution Processing in GDI Engines Using TRF-PAH Chemical Kinetic Mechanism

2016-04-05
2016-01-0690
In the present study, we developed a reduced TRF-PAH chemical reaction mechanism consisted of iso-octane, n-heptane and toluene as gasoline surrogate fuels for GDI (gasoline direct injection) spark ignition engine combustion simulation. The reduced mechanism consists of 85 species and 232 reactions including 17 species and 40 reactions related to the PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) formation. The present mechanism was validated for extensive validations with experimental ignition delay times in shock tubes and laminar flame speeds in flat flame adiabatic burner for gasoline/air and TRF/air mixtures under various pressures, temperatures and equivalence ratios related to engine conditions. Good agreement was achieved for most of the measurement. Mole fraction profiles of PAHs for n-heptane flame were also simulated and the experimental trends were reproduced well. The vapor-phase and particulate-bound PAHs existed in GDI engine exhaust were sampled and analyzed by GC-MS.
Technical Paper

Simulation Guided Design for Developing Direct Injection Combustion Systems of Gasoline Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2313
This paper describes a simulation guided design methodology for developing direct injection combustion systems of gasoline engines. The first step is the optimization of engine gas flow. The intake port is optimized by CFD simulations to compromise the engine breathing capacity and its tumble flow. Secondly, the piston crown shapes and the injection system designs (injection pressure, hole number, hole size and orientations) are optimized based on dedicated CFD simulation results. Thirdly, different injection strategies are used at different engine operating conditions to achieve best engine performance, such as split injections being used at cold starting and catalyst heating period to realize stratified charge combustion for fast catalyst light-off, and a single injection being used to achieve homogeneous mixture combustion at almost all other operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Marine Engine through Miller Cycle Coupled with EGR and Water Emulsified Fuel

2016-10-17
2016-01-2187
The combustion in low-speed two-stroke marine diesel engines can be characterized as large spatial and temporal scales combustion. One of the most effective measures to reduce NOx emissions is to reduce the local maximum combustion temperature. In the current study, multi-dimensional numerical simulations have been conducted to explore the potential of Miller cycle, high compression ratio coupled with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) and WEF (water emulsified fuel) to improve the trade-off relationship of NOx-ISFC (indicated specific fuel consumption) in a low-speed two-stroke marine engine. The results show that the EGR ratio could be reduced combined with WEF to meet the Tier III emission regulation. The penalty on fuel consumption with EGR and WEF could be offset by Miller cycle and high geometric compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Turbocharging Systems on Performance in a HD Diesel Engine with Different Emission Control Technical Routes

2016-10-17
2016-01-2185
In this work, both the ‘SCR-only’ and ‘EGR+SCR’ technical routes are compared and evaluated after the optimizations of both injection strategy and turbocharging system over the World Harmonized Stationary Cycle (WHSC) in a heavy duty diesel engine. The exhaust emissions and fuel economy performance of different turbocharging systems, including wastegate turbocharger (WGT), variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), two-stage fixed geometry turbocharger (WGT+FGT) and two-stage variable geometry turbocharger (VGT+FGT), are investigated over a wide EGR range. The NOx reduction methods and EGR introduction strategies for different turbocharger systems are proposed to improve the fuel economy. The requirement on turbocharging system and their potential to meet future stringent NOx and soot emission regulations are also discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Experimental Comparison between Stratified Flame Ignition and Micro Flame Ignition in a Gasoline SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0737
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), has been the subject of extensive research because of their ability to providing simultaneous reduction in fuel consumption and NOx emissions in a gasoline engine. However, due to its limited operation range, combustion mode switching between CAI and spark ignition (SI) combustion is essential to cover the overall operational range of a gasoline engine for passenger car applications. Previous research has shown that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion has the potential to control the ignition timing and heat release process during both steady state and transient operations. However, it was found that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is often characterized with large cycle-to-cycle variations, due to the flame instability at high dilution conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on a High Efficiency Gasoline Reformed Molecule HCCI Combustion Using Exergy Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0735
In this study, the characteristics and the advantages on engine performance of the reformed molecule HCCI (RM-HCCI) combustion fueled with gasoline were investigated by exergy analysis. The processes of fuel reforming and the closed portion of the engine cycle were simulated integrated with chemical kinetics mechanism at varied compression ratio (CR) and constant speed conditions. Results showed the fuel reforming under high temperature and oxygen-free condition by the exhaust heat recovery and electric heating assistance could drive gasoline to transform to the small-molecule gas fuels, meanwhile enhanced the chemical exergy of the fuel. The reformed fuel contributed to extending ignition delay, so less dilution required in RM-HCCI engine when expanding high load compared with gasoline HCCI engine. Thus, RM-HCCI engine could achieve higher load than gasoline HCCI engine, with the improvements by 12%, 26%, and 31% at CR17, CR19, and CR21, respectively.
Technical Paper

Study on Methods of Coupling Numerical Simulation of Conjugate Heat Transfer and In-Cylinder Combustion Process in GDI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0576
Wall temperature in GDI engine is influenced by both water jacket and gas heat source. In turn, wall temperature affects evaporation and mixing characteristics of impingement spray as well as combustion process and emissions. Therefore, in order to accurately simulate combustion process, accurate wall temperature is essential, which can be obtained by conjugate heat transfer (CHT) and piston heat transfer (PHT) models based on mapping combustion results. This CHT model considers temporal interaction between solid parts and cooling water. This paper presents an integrated methodology to reliably predict in-cylinder combustion process and temperature field of a 2.0L GDI engine which includes engine head/block/gasket and water jacket components. A two-way coupling numerical procedure on the basis of this integrated methodology is as follows.
Technical Paper

Selection of Swirl Ratio in Diesel Engines Based on Droplet Trajectory Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0813
Matching fuel injection and airflow motion is critical for the optimization of fuel-air mixing and combustion process in diesel engines. In this study, the effects of swirl flow on liquid droplet motion and the selection of swirl ratio, which are known as the major concern in organizing airflow motion, were investigated based on theoretical analysis of droplet trajectories. The evaporating droplets with various initial conditions are assumed to be transported in a solid-body-like swirl field, and their trajectories were derived based on force analysis. To evaluate fuel-air mixing quality, a new parameter with respect to fuel vapor distribution was proposed. Based on this methodology, the effects of swirl velocity, droplet size, as well as liquid-gas density ratio on droplet trajectory were discussed under diesel-engine-like boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Injection Strategy on Combustion and Emission in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with Gasoline

2017-10-08
2017-01-2266
Gasoline partially premixed combustion shows the potential to achieve clean and high-efficiency combustion. Injection strategies show great influence on in-cylinder air flow and in-cylinder fuel distribution before auto-ignition, which can significantly affect the combustion characteristics and emissions. This study explored the effects of various injection strategies, including port fuel injection (PFI), single direct injection (DIm), double direct injection (DIp+DIm) and port fuel injection coupled with a direct injection (PFI+DIm) on the combustion characteristics and emissions in a modified single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with 92# gasoline at low load. The investigation consists of two parts. Firstly, the comparison among PFI, PFI+DIm, and DIp+DIm strategies was conducted at a fixed CA50 to explore the effects of PFI+DIm and DIp+DIm strategies on the thermal efficiency and combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Effects of Butanol Isomers on the Combustion Characteristics and Particle Number Emissions of a GDI Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2323
Butanol is a promising alcohol fuel. Previous studies on combustion and diesel engines showed different trends in sooting tendencies of the butanol isomers (n-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol and tert-butanol).The impact of butanol isomers on the particulate emissions of GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines, however, has not been reported. This work examines the combustion performance and particle number emissions of a GDI engine fueled with gasoline/butanol blends in steady state modes. Each isomer was tested at blend ratios from 10% to 50% by volume. Spark timings for all the fuels are set to obtain the maximum break torque (MBT), i.e. the MBT spark timings. Results show that the particle number concentration is reduced significantly with increasing butanol content for all the isomers.
Technical Paper

Study on Dynamic Characteristics of High-Speed Solenoid Injectors by Means of Contactless Measurement

2017-10-08
2017-01-2313
In-cylinder direct-injected technology provides a flexible and accurate optimization for internal combustion engines to reduce emission and improve fuel efficiency. With increasingly stringent requirements for the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and CO2, the content of injections in an engine combustion cycle has reached 7 to 9 times in gasoline direct injection (GDI) and the diesel engine with high-pressure common rail (HPCR). Accurate control of both time and quantity of injection is critical for engine performance and emissions, while the dynamic response of injector spray characteristics is a key factor. In this paper, a test bench was built for monitoring the dynamic response of solenoid injectors with high-speed micro-photography and synchronous current collection system. Experimental studies on the dynamic response of GDI and HPCR solenoid injectors were carried out.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Rail Pressure Fluctuations under Two-Injection Conditions and the Control Strategy Based on ANN

2017-10-08
2017-01-2212
High-pressure common rail (HPCR) fuel injection system is the most widely used fuel system in diesel engines. However, when multiple injection strategy is used, the pressure wave fluctuation is un-avoided due to the opening and closing of the needle valve which will affect the subsequent fuel injection and combustion characteristics. In this paper, several parameters: injection pressure, injection intervals, the main injection pulse widths are investigated on a common rail fuel injection test rig with two injection pulses to explore their effect on the fuel injection rate and fuel quantity. The result showed that the longer injection interval between the pilot and main injections will lead to a rail pressure drop at the beginning of the main injection so that a smaller fuel quantity will be delivered. The main injection pulse width also influences fuel injection rate and the main fuel quantity.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Intake Flow of a Four-Valve Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2211
The intake process plays an important role in the operation of internal combustion engines. In the present study, a three-dimensional transient simulation of a four-valve diesel engine was performed using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model based on software CONVERGE. The mean velocity components in three directions through the intake valve curtain, the flow separation around the intake valves, the influences of inlet jet on turbulence flow field and cycle-to-cycle variation were investigated in this work. The result shows that the mean velocity distributes non-uniformly near the valve curtain at high valve lifts. In contrast, the mean velocity distribution is uniform at low valve lifts. It is found that the flow separation occurs at valve stem, valve seat and valve sealing through the outlet of the helical port. In contrast, flow separation is only observed in the valve seat through the outlet of the tangential port.
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