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Technical Paper

A Solution to Fuel Vaporization Problem in a Power Nozzle

2009-04-20
2009-01-1051
A power nozzle is a fuel injection actuator in which fuel is instantly compressed and then discharged by a solenoid piston pump with nozzle. Fuel vaporization inside the power nozzles is a challenging issue. This paper presents an effective solution to the fuel vaporization problem in the power nozzle. An applied physical process, fluid boundary layer pumping (FBLP), is found in this study. FBLP can result in fuel circulation within the fuel line of the power nozzle, which on one hand brings heat out of the power nozzle, and on the other hand blocks vapor from entering the piston pump.
Technical Paper

Using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel PCCI Combustion: Potential to Extend Engine Load, Improve Trade-off of Emissions and Efficiency

2011-04-12
2011-01-1396
The Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) engine has the potential to reduce soot and NOx emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency at part load conditions. However, several technical barriers must be overcome. Notably ways must be found to control ignition timing, expand its limited operation range and limit the rate of heat release. In this paper, comparing with single fuel injection, the superiority of multiple-pulse fuel injection in extending engine load, improve emissions and thermal efficiency trade-off using high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and boost in diesel PCCI combustion is studied by engine experiments and simulation study. It was found that EGR can delay the start of hot temperature reactions, reduce the reaction speed to avoid knock combustion in high load, is a very useful method to expand high load limit of PCCI. EGR can reduce the NOx emission to a very small value in PCCI.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Combustion Control Strategy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Based on the Technologies of Multi-Pulse Injections, Variable Boost Pressure and Retarded Intake Valve Closing Timing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1382
Combustion control strategy for high efficiency and low emissions in a heavy duty (H D) diesel engine was investigated experimentally in a single cylinder test engine with a common rail fuel system, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system, boost system and retarded intake valve closing timing actuator. For the operation loads of IMEPg (Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) less than 1.1 MPa the low temperature combustion (LTC) with high rate of EGR was applied. The fuel injection modes of either single injection or multi-pulse injections, boost pressure and retarded intake valve closing timing (RIVCT) were also coupled with the engine operation condition loads for high efficiency and low emissions. A higher boost pressure played an important role in improving fuel efficiency and obtaining ultra-low soot and NOx emissions.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Droplet Dynamics and Spray Atomization inside Thermostatic Expansion Valves

2011-04-12
2011-01-0129
In this paper, experimental investigation on spray atomization and droplet dynamics inside a thermostatic expansion valve (TXV), a component commonly used in vehicle refrigeration system, was conducted. A needle and an orifice were copied from a commercial TXV and machined to be mounted inside a chamber with optical access so that the flow inside the TXV is simulated and visualized at the same time. The break-up and atomization of the refrigerant were documented near the downstream of the orifice under different feed conditions for two TXV with different geometry. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) system was used later to measure the size and velocity of atomized refrigerant droplets. The results showed that the droplet size variation along the radial direction is slightly decreased at near downstream and increased at farther downstream due to the coalescence.
Technical Paper

Research in the Effects of Intake Manifold Length and Chamber Shape on Performance for an Atkinson Cycle Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1086
In order to improve the fuel consumption and expand the range of low fuel consumption area of a 1.5L Atkinson cycle PFI engine, the effect of the intake manifold length and chamber shape on the engine performance is investigated by setting up a GT-power (1-D) and an AVL-Fire (3-D) computational model which are calibrated with experimental data. After this the new engine was transformed to the test bench to do the calibration experiment. The results demonstrate that the intake manifold case_1 (the length is 300mm, side intake form) matched with a new designed chamber improves combustion in cylinder with a range 1.6∼7.4g/(kW•h) reduced in fuel consumption of speed that has been studied; the case_3 (the length is 100mm, intermediate intake form) matched with the new designed chamber with a range 3.86∼7g/(kW•h) reduced in fuel consumption of speed that has been studied. Both case_1 and case_3 expand the range of low fuel consumption area significantly.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Sub/Supercritical Gasoline and Iso-Octane Jets in High Temperature Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0289
Based on the temperature and pressure in the cylinder of GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines under the common operating conditions, jets´ characteristics of gasoline and iso-octane at different fuel temperatures under the high ambient temperature were studied by means of high-speed photography and striation method. It is found that the supercritical gasoline jet shows the morphological collapse of jet center and the protrusion of the front surface, but the iso-octane jet doesn´t. Meanwhile, as the fuel temperature rises, the flash boiling and the interference between adjacent plumes affect the gasoline jet, and cause the center of the jet to form a high-speed and low-pressure zone, hence the air entrainment in this region contributes to the collapse of jets. The collapse and convergence of jets´ morphology are the main reasons for the change of penetration and cone angle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Impingement of Fuel Droplet on Substrates

2019-04-02
2019-01-0300
Within a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, the impingement of fuel droplet on substrates induces various problems such as particular matter emission, oil dilution and abnormal combustion. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, it is urgent to have a clear understanding of the impingement behavior of fuel droplet impacting on substrates. Most previous studies have focused on the impingement of either water droplet on dry solid surface or the impinging droplet on the liquid film of the same type of liquid, while little research has been conducted on the impingement of fuel droplet on relevant substrates existing in GDI engines. The impingement of fuel droplet with higher Weber number on dry surface, fuel film and oil film with different thickness and viscosity were investigated experimentally. Results show that fuel droplet impacting on dry wall is easy to be deposited to form a fuel film. The fuel film attached to the wall is the main reason for the splash.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Single Fuel Droplet Impact on Oil Film

2019-04-02
2019-01-0304
In order to better understand the spray impingement behavior of the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, this paper used the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) test method to conduct basic research on the fuel droplet impact onto the oil film. The effects of different incident droplet Weber number, dimensionless oil film thickness and oil film viscosity on the morphology of oil film after impact were investigated. And the composition of splashing droplets after impingement was analyzed. The morphology of oil film after impact was divided into three categories: stable crown, delayed splash crown, and prompt splash crown. The stable crown has only splashing fuel droplets, the splashing droplets of delayed splash crown are consist of fuel and oil film. The splashing droplets of prompt splash crown mainly include the oil film. It is shown that the larger the Weber number of incident droplets, the larger the dimensionless crown height and diameter, the easier the oil film will splash.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Impact of Exhaust Turbine Redesign, for Narrow VGT Operating Range, on the Performance of Diesel Engines with Assisted Turbocharger

2019-04-02
2019-01-0326
Electrically assisted turbochargers are a promising technology for improving boost response of turbocharged engines. These systems include a turbocharger shaft mounted electric motor/generator. In the assist mode, electrical energy is applied to the turbocharger shaft via the motor function, while in the regenerative mode energy can be extracted from the shaft via the generator function, hence these systems are also referred to as regenerative electrically assisted turbochargers (REAT). REAT allows simultaneous improvement of boost response and fuel economy of boosted engines. This is achieved by optimally scheduling the electrical assist and regeneration actions. REAT also allows the exhaust turbine to operate within a narrow range of optimal vane positions relative to the unassisted variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The ability to operate within a narrow range of VGT vane positions allows an opportunity for a more optimal turbine design for a REAT system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Comparison between Stratified Flame Ignition and Micro Flame Ignition in a Gasoline SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0737
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), has been the subject of extensive research because of their ability to providing simultaneous reduction in fuel consumption and NOx emissions in a gasoline engine. However, due to its limited operation range, combustion mode switching between CAI and spark ignition (SI) combustion is essential to cover the overall operational range of a gasoline engine for passenger car applications. Previous research has shown that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion has the potential to control the ignition timing and heat release process during both steady state and transient operations. However, it was found that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is often characterized with large cycle-to-cycle variations, due to the flame instability at high dilution conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modelling Investigations of the Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion in Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0741
In this work the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion characterized by both premixed gasoline port injection and gasoline direct injection in a single-cylinder diesel engine was investigated experimentally and computationally. In the experiment, the premixed ratio (PR), injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were varied with the pressure rise rate below 10 bar/crank angle. The experimental results showed that higher PR and earlier injection timing resulted in advanced combustion phasing and improved thermal efficiency, while the pressure rise rates and NOx emissions increased. Besides, a lowest ISFC of 176 g/kWh (corresponding to IMEP =7.24 bar) was obtained, and the soot emissions could be controlled below 0.6 FSN. Despite that NOx emission was effectively reduced with the increase of EGR, HC and CO emissions were high. However, it showed that GCI combustion of this work was sensitive to EGR, which may restrict its future practical application.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation and Analysis on Aerodynamic Noise at the Engine Inlet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0686
As the intake noise is a major contributing factor to automotive passenger compartment noise levels, it has received much more attention than before. Because the plastic manifolds could induce and transmit more noise owing to their lighter weight, aerodynamic noise has become a more serious problem in plastic manifolds than in conventional aluminum-made manifolds. Due to the complexity of aerodynamic noise of the intake system, it is difficult to predict the noise precisely, especially for the part whose frequency is higher than 1000 Hz. This paper introduces a new co-simulation method to simulate the aerodynamic noise at the engine inlet. With the coupled simulation between two programs, GT-Power and Fluent, it could simulate the gas flow inside the engine intake system, under the actual running condition of engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ashless Dispersant on the Morphology, Size, Nanostructure and Graphitization Degree of Diesel Exhaust Particles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0636
The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of ashless dispersant of lube oils on diesel exhaust particles. Emphasis is placed on particle size, morphology, nanostructure and graphitization degree. Three kinds of lube oils with different percentages of ashless dispersant were used in a two-cylinder diesel engine. Ashless dispersant (T154), which is widely used in petrochemical industry, were added into baseline oil at different blend percentages (4.0% and 8.0% by weight) to improve lubrication and cleaning performance. A high resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) and a Raman spectroscopy were employed to analyze and compare particle characteristics. According to the experiment results, primary particles diameter ranges from 3 nm to 65 nm, and the diameter distribution conformed to Gaussian distribution. When the ashless dispersant was used, the primary particles diameter decrease obviously at both 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Stoichiometric Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0960
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), can improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. However, the difficulty in combustion phasing control and violent combustion at high loads limit the commercial application of CAI combustion. To overcome these problems, stratified mixture, which is rich around the central spark plug and lean around the cylinder wall, is formed through port fuel injection and direct injection of gasoline. In this condition, rich mixture is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition, while the unburned lean mixture auto-ignites due to the increased in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, i.e., stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Dilution Boundary Expansion Mechanism of SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Based on Micro Flame Ignition Strategy

2019-04-02
2019-01-0954
In decade years, Spark Ignition-Controlled Auto Ignition (SI-CAI) hybrid combustion, also called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) has shown its high-efficiency and low emissions advantages. However, high dilution causes the problem of unstable initial ignition and flame propagation, which leads to high cyclic variation of heat release and IMEP. The instability of SI-CAI hybrid combustion limits its dilution degree and its ability to improve the thermal efficiency. In order to solve instability problems and expand the dilution boundary of hybrid combustion, micro flame ignition (MFI) strategy is applied in gasoline hybrid combustion engines. Small amount of Dimethyl Ether (DME) chosen as the ignition fuel is injected into cylinder to form micro flame kernel, which can stabilize the ignition combustion process.
Technical Paper

The Application of Controlled Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engines -The Challenges and Solutions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0949
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to simultaneously reduce the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline engines. However, narrow operating region in loads and speeds is one of the challenges for the commercial application of CAI combustion to gasoline engines. Therefore, the extension of loads and speeds is an important prerequisite for the commercial application of CAI combustion. The effect of intake charge boosting, charge stratification and spark-assisted ignition on the operating range in CAI mode was reviewed. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion is one form to achieve CAI combustion under the conditions of highly diluted mixture caused by the flame in the stratified mixture with the help of spark plug.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Failures of Engine Piston Subjected to Severe Knock

2019-04-02
2019-01-0705
The previous study indicates that the detonation waves generated by acetylene/oxygen mixture can converge in the combustion chamber. In order to verify the destructive effect of detonation wave convergence on piston materials, the detonation bomb device was modified to fundamentally investigate the material failures of aluminum alloy for pistons. The results show that the specimens are destroyed in the middle and edge region after dozens of detonations, which is consistent with the typical characteristics of the piston failures in engines. Therefore, the hypothesis that failures of piston material is caused by the detonation wave convergence is verified.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Knock Intensity and Knock-Limited Thermal Efficiency of Different Combustion Chambers in Stoichiometric Operation LNG Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1137
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) engine could provide both reduced operating cost and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Stoichiometric operation with EGR and the three-way catalyst has become a potential approach for commercial LNG engines to meet the Euro VI emissions legislation. In the current study, numerical investigations on the knocking tendency of several combustion chambers with different geometries and corresponding performances were conducted using CONVERGE CFD code with G-equation flame propagation model coupled with a reduced natural gas chemical kinetic mechanism. The results showed that the CFD modeling approach could predict the knock phenomenon in LNG engines reasonably well under different thermodynamic and flow field conditions.
Technical Paper

Optical Experiments on Strong Knocking Combustion in Rapid Compression Machines with Different Fuels

2019-04-02
2019-01-1142
Nowadays the strong knocking combustion involving destructive pressure wave or shock wave has become the main bottleneck for highly boosted engines when pursuing high thermal efficiency. However, its fundamental mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, synchronization measurements through simultaneous pressure acquisition and high-speed direct photography were performed to comparatively investigate the strong knocking combustion of iso-octane and propane in a rapid compression machine with flat piston design. The pressure characteristics and visualized images of autoignition and reaction wave propagation were compared, and the correlations between thermodynamic trajectories and mixture reactivity progress were analyzed. The results show that iso-octane behaves a greater propensity to strong knocking combustion than propane at similar target pressures.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Potential of Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) Coupled with Double Diesel Direct-Injection Strategy for Meeting High Fuel Efficiency with Ultra-Low Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Engine at High Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-1166
The potential of diesel/gasoline RCCI combustion coupled with late intake valve closing (LIVC) and double direct injection of diesel for meeting high fuel efficiency with ultra-low emissions was investigated in this study. The study was aiming at high load operation in a heavy-duty diesel engine. Based on the reactivity stratification of RCCI combustion, the employment of double injection of diesel fuel provided concentration stratification of the high-reactivity fuel, which is to further realize effective control of the combustion process. Meanwhile, late intake valve closing (LIVC) strategy is introduced to control the maximum in-cylinder pressure and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions.
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