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Journal Article

Applying Virtual Statistical Modeling for Vehicle Dynamics

2010-04-12
2010-01-0019
Dimensional variation simulation is a computer aided engineering (CAE) method that analyzes the statistical efforts of the component variation to the quality of the final assembly. The traditional tolerance analysis method and commercial CAE software are often based on the assumptions of the rigid part assembly. However, the vehicle functional attributes, such as, ride and handling, NVH, durability and reliability, require understanding the assembly quality under various dynamic conditions while achieving vehicle dimensional clearance targets. This paper presents the methods in evaluating and analyzing the impacts of the assembly variations for the vehicle dynamic performance. Basic linear tolerance stack method and advanced study that applies various CAE tools for the virtual quality analysis in the product and process design will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Assessment Metric Identification and Evaluation for Side Airbag (SAB) Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0257
This paper discusses steps for identifying, evaluating and recommending a quantifiable design metric or metrics for Side Airbag (SAB) development. Three functionally related and desirable attributes of a SAB are assumed at the onset, namely, effective SAB coverage, load distribution and efficient energy management at a controlled force level. The third attribute however contradicts the “banana shaped” force-displacement response that characterizes the ineffective energy management reality of most production SAB. In this study, an estimated ATD to SAB interaction energy is used to size and recommend desired force-deformation characteristic of a robust energy management SAB. The study was conducted in the following three phases and corresponding objectives: Phase 1 is a SAB assessment metric identification and estimation, using a uniform block attached to a horizontal impact machine.
Journal Article

Effects of Roller Diameter and Number on Fatigue Lives of Cam Roller Follower Bearings

2011-04-12
2011-01-0489
Effects of roller diameter and number on the contact pressures, subsurface stresses and the fatigue lives of cam roller follower bearings are investigated in this paper. Finite element analyses under plane strain conditions were conducted to identify the effects of the diameter and number of the rolling elements and the thickness of the outer ring. The fatigue life of the inner pin generally increases as the roller diameter increases. But, reducing the number of rollers to accommodate larger rollers does not necessarily increase the fatigue life. The inevitable decrease of the thickness of the outer ring due to the increase of the roller diameter results in the increase of compliance for the outer ring. This increase of compliance leads to excessive deformation of the outer ring and consequently more load must be carried by fewer number of rolling elements.
Journal Article

CAE Applications and Techniques used in Calculating the Snaps Insertions and Retentions Efforts in Automotive Trims

2014-04-01
2014-01-1032
A snap-fit is a form-fitting joint, which is used to assemble plastic parts together. Snap-fits are available in different forms like a projecting clip, thicker section or legs in one part, and it is assembled to another part through holes, undercuts or recesses. The main function of the snap-fit is to hold the mating components, and it should withstand the vibration and durability loads. Snap-fits are easy to assemble, and should not fail during the assembling process. Based on the design, these joints may be separable or non-separable. The non- separable joints will withstand the loads till failure, while separable joints will withstand only for the design load. The insertion and the retention force calculation for the snaps are very essential for snap-fit design. The finite element analysis plays a very important role in finding the insertion and the retention force values, and also to predict the failure of the snaps and the mating components during this process.
Technical Paper

Stiffness Simulation Techniques and Test Correlations in Automotive Interior Cockpit Systems (IP, Door Trim and Floor Console Assembly)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1025
An automotive cockpit module is a complex assembly, which consists of components and sub-systems. The critical systems in the cockpit module are the instrument panel (IP), the floor console, and door trim assemblies, which consist of many plastic trims. Stiffness is one of the most important parameters for the plastic trims' design, and it should be optimum to meet all the three functional requirements of safety, vibration and durability. This paper presents how the CAE application and various other techniques are used efficiently to predict the stiffness, and the strength of automotive cockpit systems, which will reduce the product development cycle time and cost. The implicit solver is used for the most of the stiffness analysis, and the explicit techniques are used in highly non-linear situations. This paper also shows the correlations of the CAE results and the physical test results, which will give more confidence in product design and reduce the cost of prototype testing.
Technical Paper

Simplified CAE Model Technique to Predict Crush Performance of Identical Sized Passenger Vehicle Doors

2014-04-01
2014-01-0543
This paper highlights a simplified CAE model technique, which can simulate and predict door crush strength performance quickly. Such quick models can be used for DFSS and Design change studies. The proposed method suggests an equivalent sub model technique using only the door beam with tuned stiffness end springs to predict FMVSS214S full vehicle crush performance. Such models can be solved in minutes and hence very useful for DFSS studies during product design. The proposed method can be used to finalize door beam design for identical size of vehicle doors to meet required FMVSS214S crush performance. The paper highlights the door beam end springs tuning for identical size of cars and SUVs. Four vehicles were considered for the study. A single spring F-D (force -displacement) is tuned which correlated well for frond door of all the four vehicles. A separate unique spring F-D was needed which correlated well for rear door of all the 4 vehicles.
Technical Paper

Need for a Robust Asset Management Business Algorithm

2014-04-01
2014-01-0783
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act created new standards for corporate accountability pertaining to all publicly-owned and traded firms. It holds top executives accountable for the accuracy of all financial data and statements, including reported tangible assets. It requires existence of auditable internal accounting control measures and specifies adherence to new internal controls and procedures designed to ensure the validity of their financial records and physical assets. The Act presents a challenge to every manufacturing firm to have a low-cost system implemented that can produce an exact physical-asset location, existence, verification and accounting on demand. Clearly, such low-cost solutions for enterprise-wide compliance would also provide verifiable and reliable data for corporate property tax, loan collateral, and audit requirements.
Technical Paper

Application of the Glinka's ESED Criterion in Optimization Design

2014-04-01
2014-01-0912
In order to take into account the local material non-linear elastic-plastic effects generated by notches, Glinka proposed the equivalent strain energy density (ESED) Criterion which has been widely accepted and used in fatigue theory and calculation for the last few decades. In this paper, Glinka's criterion is applied to structural optimization design for elastic-plastic correction to consider material non-linear elastic-plastic effects. The equivalent (fictitious) stress was derived from Glinka's Criterion equation for the commonly used Ramberg-Osgood and bi-linear stress and strain relationships. This equivalent stress can be used as the stress boundary constraint threshold in structural optimization design to control the elastic-plastic stress or strain in nonlinear optimization.
Technical Paper

Target Volume Based Shift Controls with High Flow PWM Solenoids

2010-04-12
2010-01-0369
The Chrysler Ultradrive four-speed transaxle 41TE was the first production transmission to pioneer fully adaptive direct clutch-to-clutch electronic controls without overrunning clutches. "Single stage" high flow PWM solenoids have been used for transmission control since 1989 and still being used in the later-developed 545RFE and 62TE transmissions. The proposed target volume-based shift control method allows the usage of flow-based control device such as PWM solenoids to implement torque-based control strategy. Vehicle test results with this new method have shown excellent shift quality and improved system consistency.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0410
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Technical Paper

FEA Predictions and Test Results from Magnesium Beams in Bending and Axial Compression

2010-04-12
2010-01-0405
Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Transmission Systems using Physical Model Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0898
Physical modeling has been used by the industry to improve development time and produce a quality product. In this paper, we will describe two methods used in system control to take advantage of the physical model. One method describes a complete transmission physical model with a full system control utilizing co-simulation techniques. Data will be presented, and comparison to vehicle data will be conducted and verified. The second method will illustrate how to utilize the physical model to improve system design and modification. In this method, vehicle data will be used as inputs to the model, the model output will be verified against vehicle output data. The two methods are excellent tools for the Design For Six Sigma process (DFSS design).
Journal Article

The Electric Fan as a Cooling Package Air Flow Meter

2012-04-16
2012-01-0954
A D.C. permanent magnet motor powered fan can serve as a cooling package air flow meter. This allows for continuous air flow monitoring during vehicle operation with applications to more precise air flow control schemes. In the freewheel mode, the air flow is a linear function of the open circuit voltage of the motor. In the powered mode, the motor voltage and current can be used with a motor and fan model to predict fan air flow. The model is explained and verifying test results are presented. Comparison of the accuracy and complexity vs. that of arrays of precision anemometers is provided.
Journal Article

Quality Inspection of Spot Welds using Digital Shearography

2012-04-16
2012-01-0182
Spot Welding is an important welding technique which is widely used in automotive and aerospace industry. One of the keys of checking the quality of the welds is measuring the size of the nugget. In this paper, the Shearographic technique is utilized to test weld joint samples under the thermal loading condition. The goal is to identify the different group of the nuggets (i.e. small, middle, and large sizes, which indicate the quality of spot welds). In the experiments, the sample under test is fixed by a magnet method from behind at the four edges. Thermal loading was applied in the back side and the sample is inspected using the digital Shearographic system in the front side. Results show the great possibility of classifying the nugget size into three groups and the measurement is well repeatable.
Technical Paper

Smart Charging Standards for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1823
This paper is the fifth in the series of documents designed to identify the progress on the SAE Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) communication task force that follows 2010-01-0837, 2011-01-0866, 2012-01-1036 and 2013-01-1475. The primary focus of this paper is to discuss the most recent revision of J2847/1 [1], which deals with Smart Charging applications, plus the initial release of J2847/3 [2], which can be thought of as dealing with “Smart Discharging” applications. Both documents are based on the use of the Smart Energy Profile 2.0 (SEP2) Application Protocol Standard (V1.0) which was completed by the ZigBee Alliance in April 2013. The standard was then accepted by the IEEE and subsequently released as IEEE 2030.5 [3]. SEP2 started with a Marketing Requirements Document (MRD) that J2836/1™ [4]expanded for the automotive Use Cases for Smart Charging, The MRD was then used to generate the SEP2 Technical Requirements Document (TRD) that set the automotive requirements in J2931/1 [5].
Journal Article

An Evaluation of Residual Gas Fraction Measurement Techniques in a High Degree of Freedom Spark Ignition Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0094
Stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations have driven development of new mixture preparation technologies and increased spark-ignition engine complexity. Additional degrees of freedom, brought about by devices such as cam phasers and charge motion control valves, enable greater range and flexibility in engine control. This permits significant gains in fuel efficiency and emission control, but creates challenges related to proper engine control and calibration techniques. Accurate experimental characterization of high degree of freedom engines is essential for addressing the controls challenge. In particular, this paper focuses on the evaluation of three experimental residual gas fraction measurement techniques for use in a spark ignition engine equipped with dual-independent variable camshaft phasing (VVT).
Technical Paper

Active Bolster for Side Impact Protection

2008-04-14
2008-01-0191
This paper discusses the simulation based methodology for designing and developing a deployable vehicle door interior trim, an Active Side Bolster (ASB), and its interaction (in FEA simulation) with an ATD in side impact crash test modes like FMVSS2141 Oblique Pole, IIHS2 and LINCAP. The FEA models, especially with the complexity of the full vehicle structure, the ATDs3 and the airbags, require extensive correlation using vehicle tests. A methodology is outlined here to ensure that the model results could be used to generate FEA ATD assessments without a significant numerical contamination of the results. These correlated FEA models for side impact vehicle tests and ATDs were used to simulate various side impact crash test conditions; such as IIHS barrier, the FMVSS-214 Oblique Pole and LINCAP. The ATD responses from the baseline vehicle FEA models and those modified with the addition of an ASB in the door shows improvement in assessment values due to the introduction of the ASB.
Technical Paper

Wheel Joint Analytical System Approach to Evaluate Brake Rotor Mounted LRO Sensitivity Effects

2007-10-07
2007-01-3947
Many different studies have been performed to understand brake roughness, and in particular how brake rotor Disc Thickness Variation (DTV) is generated. The intent of this paper is to analytically explore through non- linear finite element modeling methods the effects of wheel joint variables on brake rotor mounted Lateral RunOut (LRO). The phenomenon of LRO is believed to be a primary contributor to DTV generation and resulting brake roughness. CAE analyses were conducted in non-linear contact mechanics in which real contacts between components exist. Various joint designs were simulated to compare rotor LRO and coning. Several parameters inherent to the design of wheel joints were varied and studied. A comparative approach was used to develop specific design recommendations for LRO reductions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion Characteristics and Emissions with Stoichiometric and EGR-diluted Mixtures in SI Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-3992
In-cylinder charge motion is known to significantly increase turbulence intensity, accelerate combustion rate, and reduce cyclic variation. This, in turn, extends the tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), while the introduction of EGR results in much lowered nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and reduced fuel consumption. The present study investigates the effect of charge motion in a spark ignition engine on fuel consumption, combustion, and engine-out emissions with stoichiometric and EGR-diluted mixtures under part-load operating conditions. Experiments have been performed with a Chrysler 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine under 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure at 1600 rpm over a spark range around maximum brake torque timing. The primary intake runners are partially blocked to create different levels of tumble, swirl, and cross-tumble (swumble) motion in the cylinder before ignition.
Technical Paper

Impact of Tumble on Combustion in SI Engines: Correlation between Flow and Engine Experiments

2007-10-29
2007-01-4003
The introduction of tumble into the combustion chamber is an effective method of enhancing turbulence intensity prior to ignition, thereby accelerating the burn rates, stabilizing the combustion, and extending the dilution limit. In this study, the primary intake runners are partially blocked to produce different levels of tumble motion in the cylinder during the air induction process. Experiments have been performed with a Chrysler 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine at maximum brake torque timing under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar BMEP at 1200 rpm. A method has been developed to quantify the tumble characteristics of blockages under steady flow conditions in a flow laboratory, by using the same cylinder head, intake manifold, and tumble blockages from the engine experiments.
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