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Journal Article

Applying Virtual Statistical Modeling for Vehicle Dynamics

2010-04-12
2010-01-0019
Dimensional variation simulation is a computer aided engineering (CAE) method that analyzes the statistical efforts of the component variation to the quality of the final assembly. The traditional tolerance analysis method and commercial CAE software are often based on the assumptions of the rigid part assembly. However, the vehicle functional attributes, such as, ride and handling, NVH, durability and reliability, require understanding the assembly quality under various dynamic conditions while achieving vehicle dimensional clearance targets. This paper presents the methods in evaluating and analyzing the impacts of the assembly variations for the vehicle dynamic performance. Basic linear tolerance stack method and advanced study that applies various CAE tools for the virtual quality analysis in the product and process design will be discussed.
Journal Article

CAE Applications and Techniques used in Calculating the Snaps Insertions and Retentions Efforts in Automotive Trims

2014-04-01
2014-01-1032
A snap-fit is a form-fitting joint, which is used to assemble plastic parts together. Snap-fits are available in different forms like a projecting clip, thicker section or legs in one part, and it is assembled to another part through holes, undercuts or recesses. The main function of the snap-fit is to hold the mating components, and it should withstand the vibration and durability loads. Snap-fits are easy to assemble, and should not fail during the assembling process. Based on the design, these joints may be separable or non-separable. The non- separable joints will withstand the loads till failure, while separable joints will withstand only for the design load. The insertion and the retention force calculation for the snaps are very essential for snap-fit design. The finite element analysis plays a very important role in finding the insertion and the retention force values, and also to predict the failure of the snaps and the mating components during this process.
Technical Paper

Stiffness Simulation Techniques and Test Correlations in Automotive Interior Cockpit Systems (IP, Door Trim and Floor Console Assembly)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1025
An automotive cockpit module is a complex assembly, which consists of components and sub-systems. The critical systems in the cockpit module are the instrument panel (IP), the floor console, and door trim assemblies, which consist of many plastic trims. Stiffness is one of the most important parameters for the plastic trims' design, and it should be optimum to meet all the three functional requirements of safety, vibration and durability. This paper presents how the CAE application and various other techniques are used efficiently to predict the stiffness, and the strength of automotive cockpit systems, which will reduce the product development cycle time and cost. The implicit solver is used for the most of the stiffness analysis, and the explicit techniques are used in highly non-linear situations. This paper also shows the correlations of the CAE results and the physical test results, which will give more confidence in product design and reduce the cost of prototype testing.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0410
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Technical Paper

FEA Predictions and Test Results from Magnesium Beams in Bending and Axial Compression

2010-04-12
2010-01-0405
Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
Journal Article

Quality Inspection of Spot Welds using Digital Shearography

2012-04-16
2012-01-0182
Spot Welding is an important welding technique which is widely used in automotive and aerospace industry. One of the keys of checking the quality of the welds is measuring the size of the nugget. In this paper, the Shearographic technique is utilized to test weld joint samples under the thermal loading condition. The goal is to identify the different group of the nuggets (i.e. small, middle, and large sizes, which indicate the quality of spot welds). In the experiments, the sample under test is fixed by a magnet method from behind at the four edges. Thermal loading was applied in the back side and the sample is inspected using the digital Shearographic system in the front side. Results show the great possibility of classifying the nugget size into three groups and the measurement is well repeatable.
Technical Paper

Application of Tuned Mass Damper to Address Discrete Excitation Away From Primary Resonance Frequency of a Structure

2009-05-19
2009-01-2125
Tuned mass dampers (TMDs) or vibration absorbers are widely used in the industry to address various NVH issues, wherein, tactile-vibration or noise mitigation is desired. TMDs can be classified into two categories, namely, tuned-to-resonance and tuned-to-discrete-excitation. An overwhelming majority of TMD applications found in the industry belong to the tuned-to-resonance category, so much of information is available on design considerations of such dampers; however, little is published regarding design considerations of dampers tuned-to-discrete-excitation. During this study, a problem was solved that occurred at a discrete excitation frequency away from the primary resonance frequency of a steering column-wheel assembly. A solution was developed in multiple stages. First the effects of various factors such as mass and damping were analyzed by using a closed-form solution.
Technical Paper

Adaptive nth Order Lookup Table used in Transmission Double Swap Shift Control

2008-04-14
2008-01-0538
The new Chrysler six-speed transaxle makes use of an underdrive assembly to extend a four-speed automatic transmission to six-speed. It is achieved by introducing double-swap shifts. During double-swap shift, learning the initial clutch torque capacity of the underdrive assembly's subsystem has a direct impact on the shift quality. A new method is proposed to compute and learn the initial clutch torque capacity of the releasing element. In this paper, we will outline a new mathematical method to compute and learn the accurate starting point of the clutch torque capacity for double swap shift control. The performance of the shift is demonstrated and the importance of the adaptation to shift quality is highlighted. An nth order lookup table is presented; this table contains n rows and m columns. Every row defines a relationship between the dependent variable such as actuator duty cycle and one independent variable such as transmission oil temperature, input torque or battery voltage.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Structural Optimization of an Automotive Body-In-White Design

2008-04-14
2008-01-0880
A process for simultaneously optimizing the mechanical performance and minimizing the weight of an automotive body-in-white will be developed herein. The process begins with appropriate load path definition though calculation of an optimized topology. Load paths are then converted to sheet metal, and initial critical cross sections are sized and shaped based on packaging, engineering judgment, and stress and stiffness approximations. As a general direction of design, section requirements are based on an overall vehicle “design for stiffness first” philosophy. Design for impact and durability requirements, which generally call for strength rather than stiffness, are then addressed by judicious application of the most recently developed automotive grade advanced high strength steels. Sheet metal gages, including tailored blanks design, are selected via experience and topometry optimization studies.
Journal Article

A Springback Compensation Study on Chrysler 300C Stamping Panels Using LS-DYNA®

2008-04-14
2008-01-1443
Springback compensation studies on a few selected auto panels from the hot selling Chrysler 300C are presented with details. LS-DYNA® is used to predict the springback behavior and to perform the iterative compensation optimization. Details of simulation parameters using LS-DYNA® to improve the prediction accuracy are discussed. An iterative compensation algorithm is also discussed with details. Four compensation examples with simulation predictions and actual panel measurement results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of LS-DYNA® predictions. An aluminum hood inner and a high strength steel roof bow are compensated, constructed and machined based on simulation predictions. The measurements on actual tryout panels are then compared with simulation predictions and good correlations were achieved. Iterative compensation studies are also done on the aluminum hood inner and the aluminum deck lid inner to demonstrate the effectiveness of LS-DYNA® compensation algorithm.
Journal Article

Distortion and Residual Stresses in Nitrocarburized and Carbonitrided SAE 1010 Plain Carbon Steel

2008-04-14
2008-01-1421
The focus of this study was to determine the residual stress and retained austenite profiles for carbonitrided and nitrocarburized SAE 1010 plain carbon steel and to relate these profiles to one another and to the distortion resulting from heat treatment. Navy C-ring specimens were used for the purpose of this study and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to measure both residual stress and retained austenite. The findings from this research are then applied to a manufacturing application involving the surface hardening of a thin shelled, plain carbon steel automotive component.
Journal Article

Effect of Operational Testing and Trim Manufacturing Process Variation on Head Injury Criterion in FMVSS 201 Tests

2008-04-14
2008-01-1218
This paper analyzes the difference in impact response of the forehead of the Hybrid III and THOR-NT dummies in free motion headform tests when a dummy strikes the interior trim of a vehicle. Hybrid III dummy head is currently used in FMVSS201 tests. THOR-NT dummy head has been in development to replace Hybrid III head. The impact response of the forehead of both the Hybrid III dummy and THOR dummy was designed to the same human surrogate data. Therefore, when the forehead of either dummy is impacted with the same initial conditions, the acceleration response and consequently the head Injury criterion (HIC) should be similar. A number of manufacturing variables can affect the impacted interior trim panels. This work evaluates the effect of process variation on the response in the form of Head Injury Criterion (HIC).
Technical Paper

Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum for Automotive Closure Panel Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0145
Friction stir welding (FSW) shows advantages for joining lightweight alloys for automotive applications. In this research, the feasibility of friction stir welding aluminum for an automotive component application was studied. The objective of this research was to improve the Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) technique used to weld an aluminum closure panel (CP). The spot welds were made using the newly designed swing-FSSW technique. In a previous study (unpublished), the panel was welded from the thin to thick side using both an 8 mm and a 10 mm diameter tool. The 10 mm tool passed various fatigue tests; however, the target was to improve performance of the 8 mm tool, especially to increase the number of cycle before the first crack appearance during fatigue testing. In this study fatigue tests and static strength was recorded for weld specimens that were welded from thick-to-thin with an 8 mm diameter tool.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Fastening Strategy & Joint Integrity to Reduce Stresses in Ring Gear Bolts on Rear Differential Assemblies

2009-04-20
2009-01-0411
Ring gear bolts in differentials are often modified in size to accommodate the additional clamp load that is required due to an increase in torque from a vehicle's powertrain. Depending on a given program several constraints need to be considered. These include cost, validation time, reliability / durability and timing for implementation. In this paper, a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) procedure for analyzing stresses in ring gear bolts within a rear differential assembly is outlined and the computational results are then compared to quasi-static bench test results that were developed to measure bending and tension loads in the ring gear bolts during loading and unloading of the axle pinion. A dynamometer test is then developed to duplicate the failure mode and provide a comparison of the design changes proposed and the expected improvement in durability.
Journal Article

Residual Stresses and Dimensional Changes in Ferritic Nitrocarburized Navy C-rings and Prototype Stamped Parts Made from SAE 1010 Steel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0425
Nitrocarburizing is an economical surface hardening process and is proposed as an alternative heat treatment method to carbonitriding. The focus of this study is to compare the size and shape distortion and residual stresses resulting from the ferritic nitrocarburizing and gas carbonitriding processes for SAE 1010 plain carbon steel. Gas, ion and vacuum nitrocarburizing processes utilizing different heat treatment temperatures and times were performed to compare the different ferritic nitrocarburizing processes. Navy C-Ring specimens and prototype stamped parts were used to evaluate size and shape distortion. X-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the residual stresses in the specimens. Overall, the test results indicate that the nitrocarburizing process gives rise to smaller dimensional changes than carbonitriding, and that the size and shape distortion can be considerably reduced by applying appropriate ferritic nitrocarburizing procedures.
Technical Paper

FEA Simulation of Induction Hardening and Residual Stress of Auto Components

2009-04-20
2009-01-0418
The paper studies the distributions of residual stresses in auto components after induction hardening. Three prototype parts are analyzed in this paper. Firstly, the temperature fields of the analyzed parts are quantitatively simulated during quenching by simulating surface heating to the austenitization temperature of the material. Secondly, the formation and states of the residual stresses are predicted. Therefore the distribution of residual stress is simulated and shows compressive stresses on the surface of components so that the strength can be improved. The simulated results by computer are compared with experimental results. The good comparison indicates that the results obtained by the FEA analysis are reliable. Thus, it can be concluded that the FEA (Finite element analysis) program is effectively developed to simulate heating and quenching processes and residual stresses distribution.
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