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Journal Article

Review of CO2 Emissions and Technologies in the Road Transportation Sector

2010-04-12
2010-01-1276
The topic of CO₂ and fuel consumption reductions from vehicles is a very broad and complex issue, encompassing vehicle regulations, biofuel mandates, and a vast assortment of engine and vehicle technologies. This paper attempts to provide a high-level review of all these issues. Reducing fuel consumption appears not to be driven by the amount of hydrocarbon reserves, but by energy security and climate change issues. Regarding the latter, a plan was proposed by the United Nations for upwards of 80% CO₂ reductions from 1990 levels by 2050. Regulators are beginning to respond by requiring ~25% reductions in CO₂ emissions from light-duty vehicles by 2016 in major world markets, with more to come. The heavy-duty sector is poised to follow. Similarly, fuel policy is aimed at energy diversity (security) and climate change impacts. Emerging biofuel mandates require nominally 5-10% CO₂ life cycle emissions reductions by 2020.
Technical Paper

Systems Design for Ceramic LFA Substrates for Diesel/Natural Gas Flow- Through Catalysts

1995-02-01
950150
The monolithic, large frontal area (LFA), extruded ceramic substrates for diesel flow-through catalysts offer unique advantages of design versatility, longterm durability, ease of packaging and low Cost [1, 2]*. This paper examines the effect of cell density and cell size on catalyst light-off performance, back pressure, mechanical and thermal durability, and the steady-state catalytic activity. The factors which affect these performance characteristics are discussed. Certain trade-offs in performance parameters, which are necessary for optimum systems design, are also discussed. Following a brief discussion of design methodology, substrate selection, substrate/washcoat interaction and packaging specifications, the durability data for ceramic flow-through catalysts are summarized. A total of over 18 million vehicle miles have been successfully demonstrated by ceramic LFA catalysts using the systems design approach.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Compressive Strength of Extruded Cordierite Ceramic Substrates

1995-02-01
950787
High temperature modulus of rupture (MOR) data, published previously, show that the ceramic catalyst supports get stronger with temperature due to the absence of water vapor and closure of microcracks which would otherwise act as stress concentrators [1, 2 and 3]*. The increased MOR value is partially responsible for the excellent durability of ceramic catalyst supports at high temperature. In this paper, we will present the compressive strength data of ceramic substrates at high temperature, namely the crush strength along B-axis and biaxial compressive strength of the whole substrate. Since the honeycomb strength is directly related to that of the individual cell wall, the compressive strength should also increase with temperature similar to the modulus of rupture. Accordingly, the ceramic substrates are capable of supporting higher mounting pressures exerted by the intumescent mat at high temperature [4].
Technical Paper

Durability of Extruded Electrically Heated Catalysts

1995-02-01
950404
Extruded metal honeycombs are used as electrically heated catalysts (EHCs). The durability requirements of this application make demands on high surface area, thin cross-section metal honeycombs. Significant durability improvements over previous extruded metal honeycomb EHCs have been achieved by material and package design changes. The product redesign was supported by finite element models and extensive testing. The redesigned EHC has passed severe laboratory and field testing. The tests include electrical cycling to 1000°C/1600 cycles, hot vibration to 60g/900°C and demanding on-vehicle exposure. Excellent durability of the extruded metal honeycomb has been demonstrated.
Journal Article

Review of Diesel Emissions and Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0301
This review summarizes the latest developments in diesel emissions regarding regulations, engines, NOx (nitrogen oxides) control, particulate matter (PM) reductions, and hydrocarbon (HC) and CO oxidation. Regulations are advancing with proposals for PN (particle number) regulations that require diesel particulate filters (DPFs) for Euro VI in 2013-14, and SULEV (super ultra low emission vehicle) fleet average light-duty (LD) emissions likely to be proposed in California for ~2017. CO₂ regulations will also impact diesel engines and emissions, probably long into the future. Engine technology is addressing these needs. Heavy-duty (HD) research engines show 90% lower NOx at the same PM or fuel consumption levels as a reference 2007 production engine. Work is starting on HD gasoline engines with promising results. In light duty (LD), engine downsizing is progressing and deNOx is emerging as a fuel savings strategy.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ash on Gasoline Particulate Filter Using an Accelerated Ash Loading Method

2018-04-03
2018-01-1258
Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is considered a suitable solution to meet the increasingly stringent particle number (PN) regulations for both gasoline direct injection (GDI) and multi-port fuel injection (MPI) engines. Generally, GDI engines emit more particulate matter (PM) and PN. In recent years, GDI engines have gained significant market penetration in the automobile industry owing to better fuel economy and drivability. In this study, an accelerated ash loading method was tested by doping lubricating oil into the fuel for a GDI engine. Emission tests were performed at different ash loads with different driving cycles and GPF combinations. The results showed that the GPF could significantly reduce particle emissions to meet the China 6 regulation. With further ash loading, the filtration efficiency increased above 99% and the effects on fuel consumption and backpressure were found to be limited, even with an ash loading of up to 50 g/l.
Technical Paper

The Design of Automotive Catalyst Supports for Improved Pressure Drop and Conversion Efficiency

1991-02-01
910371
The current automotive catalytic converter is highly dependable and provides excellent emissions reduction while at the same time it offers little resistance to the flow of gasses through the exhaust system. As automobile performance requirements increase, and as the allowable tailpipe emissions are tightened, there is a need on the one hand to reduce the back pressure even further, and on the other, to increase the already excellent catalytic performance. This paper will analyze the substrate factors which influence the pressure drop and conversion efficiency of the catalyst system. The converter frontal area has the most significant influence on both pressure drop and conversion efficiency, followed in order by part length, cell density, and wall thickness.
Technical Paper

Technique for the Analysis of FTP Emissions

1992-02-01
920724
Previous papers have considered the role of the substrate in the catalyst system. It has been shown that the total catalyzed surface area of the substrate (defined as the substrate geometric surface area multiplied by the substrate volume) can act as a surrogate for the catalyst performance. The substrate affects the back pressure of the exhaust system and therefore, the available power. Relationships have been developed between the substrate physical characteristics, and both the pressure drop and total surface area of the substrate. The substrate pressure drop has also been related to power loss. What has been lacking is a means of quantitatively relating the substrate properties to the conversion efficiency. This paper proposes a simple relationship between the substrate total surface area and the emissions of the vehicle as measured on the FTP cycle.
Technical Paper

Durable Packaging Design for Cordierite Ceramic Catalysts for Motorcycle Application

1993-03-01
930161
The motorcycle emissions regulations for both two-stroke and four-stroke engines, which are receiving worldwide attention, will go into effect in the very near future. To meet these regulations, the motorcycles will require a catalyst in conjunction with the muffler due to space limitations. The combination of high engine speeds, high vibrational acceleration, high HC and CO emissions, high oxidation exotherms, and stringent durability requirements, points to cordierite ceramic substrate as an ideal catalyst support. However, as an integral unit within the muffler, its packaging design must be capable of withstanding isothermal operating conditions which may exceed the upper intumescent temperature limit of the ceramic mat. This paper describes a durable packaging design for the ceramic catalyst which employs a hybrid ceramic mat, special end rings and gaskets, and high strength stainless steel can.
Technical Paper

Size Effect on the Strength of Ceramic Catalyst Supports

1992-10-01
922333
The typical ceramic catalyst support for automotive application has a total volume of 1640 cm3. Approximately 10% of this volume is subjected to tensile thermal stresses due to a radial temperature gradient in service [1]*. These stresses are kept below 50% of the substrate strength to minimize fatigue degradation and to ensure long-term durability [2]. However, the tensile strength measurements are carried out in 4-point bending using 2.5 cm wide x 1.2 cm thick x 10 cm long modulus of rupture bars in which the specimen volume subjected to tensile stress is merely 3.2 cm3 or 0.2% of the total substrate volume [3]. Thus, a large specimen population is often necessary (50 specimens or more) to obtain the strength distribution representative of full substrate. This is particularly true for large frontal area substrates for diesel catalyst supports with an order of magnitude larger stressed volume. In this paper, the modulus of rupture data are obtained as function of specimen size.
Technical Paper

Reduced Energy and Power Consumption for Electrically Heated Extruded Metal Converters

1993-03-01
930383
Improved designs of extruded metal electrically heated catalysts (EHC) in combination with a traditional converter achieved the California ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) standard utilizing 50% less electrical energy than previous prototypes. This energy reduction is largely achieved by reducing the mass of the EHC. In addition to energy reduction, the battery voltage is reduced from 24 volts to 12 volts, and the power is reduced from 12 kilowatts to 3 kilowatts. Also discussed is the impact EHC mass, EHC catalytic activity, and no EHC preheating has on non-methane hydrocarbon emissions, energy requirements, and power requirements.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control - Last 12 Months in Review

2000-10-16
2000-01-2817
The key diesel emission control papers of the last 12 months have been summarized. In addition, the emerging US and European light-duty and heavy-duty tailpipe regulations are compared. Results are reported on light-duty diesel filtration regeneration systems and experiences, including effects of ash build-up and some recent modeling work. On the heavy-duty side, optimization of SCR catalysts and systems are described, as well as experiences with the first integrated SCR/filter systems, which are already achieving “Euro V” 2008 standards. An update on NOx adsorbers is also provided. The results with new NOx formulations are described, as well as the system performance in a light-duty diesel application.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature on Biaxial Strength of Automotive Windshields

2000-10-03
2000-01-2722
This paper focuses on the effect of temperature on biaxial strength of curved, symmetrically laminated, automotive windshields. In view of their aspheric curvature, the measurement of biaxial strength requires a special ring-on-ring test fixture with compliant loading and support rings. The key factors that affect strength are (i) fatigue behavior of surface flaws, (ii) expansion mismatch between glass and PVB interlayer, and (iii) interfacial bond integrity. These, in turn, depend on the operating temperature which for automotive windshields can range from −40°C in winter to +50°C in summer. The data show that the biaxial strength is 21% higher at −40°C and 28% lower at +50°C than that at room temperature. An assessment of fatigue and interfacial bond integrity shows that strength changes of these magnitudes are predominantly caused by residual stresses arising from expansion mismatch between glass and PVB interlayer.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration: Thermal Management Through Filter Design

2000-10-16
2000-01-2847
Honeycomb based diesel particulate filters have proven to be extremely effective in the removal of diesel soot. Under certain conditions, involving heavy soot loads and a shift of the engine into the idle mode during the early stages of the regeneration process, the current designs of cordierite filters have shown some tendency toward partial melting. A brief review of the SAE literature is presented, indicating that the temperatures reached during regeneration decrease substantially as the bulk heat capacity of the filter increases. Analysis of these literature data indicates that the top temperatures experienced during regeneration can be decreased by hundreds of degrees, by relatively modest increases in the bulk heat capacity of the bodies. New data are presented confirming how the top temperature varies with different filter designs in which the bulk heat capacity varies.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of SoftMountSM Technology for Use in Packaging UltraThinwall Ceramic Substrates

2002-03-04
2002-01-1097
Quantitative in-use pressure measurements were taken from packaging ceramic substrates with the SoftMountSM technology and two more traditional technologies, stuffing and tourniquet. Each technology was assessed using four separate mat materials. Mat selection enhanced the application of the SoftMountSM technology through the reduced pressures applied to the substrate during packaging. High temperature and low temperature thermal cycling studies were performed on the canned converters for the three packaging technologies so that an evaluation could be made of converter durability. The SoftMountSM packaging technology yielded the lowest pressures of all the processes studied, regardless of mat type. The laminar hybrid mat evaluated yielded the best combination of pressure and durability performance. Low temperature residual shear strengths following thermal cycling of the converters showed good correlation between the SoftMountSM technology and the stuffing method.
Technical Paper

Ultra Thinwall Light-off Performance - Varying Substrates, Catalysts, and Flow Rates; Models and Engine Testing

2002-03-04
2002-01-0352
To establish performance trends in ultra thin wall substrates and help support their selection criteria for designing catalytic converter systems, the light-off behavior of five Ultra Thin Wall ceramic substrates and two catalysts on an engine dynamometer are hereby examined. Modeling predictions are also compared to the engine results and the trends and implications are discussed. To quantify the performance of these different systems, light-off tests were performed on an engine dynamometer using a simulated FTP cycle. Five systems were evaluated (600/4, 600/3, 600/2, 900/2 and 1200/2) each with two different catalyst formulations. Engine bench aging was used to simulate typical aged conditions in the converter systems. Second by second emissions data for temperature, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, were used to evaluate the relative performances of the substrates.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cell Geometry on Emissions Performance of Ceramic Catalytic Converters

2002-03-04
2002-01-0354
More stringent emissions regulations, space limitations for catalytic converters in modern automotive applications, and new engine technologies constitute design challenges for today's engineers. In that context high cell density thinwall and ultrathinwall ceramic substrates have been designed into advanced catalytic converters. Whereas the majority of these substrates have a square cell geometry, a potential for further emissions improvement has been predicted for hexagonal cell structures. In order to verify these predictions, a ceramic substrate has been developed combining the features of high cell density, ultrathin cell walls, and hexagonal cell structure. Based on modeling data, the actual cell density and wall thickness of the hexagonal cell substrate will be defined. The performance of that substrate will be assessed by comparing experimental emissions results using two modern Volkswagen engines.
Technical Paper

Performance and Durability Evaluation of Continuously Regenerating Particulate Filters on Diesel Powered Urban Buses at NY City Transit - Part II

2002-03-04
2002-01-0430
In urban areas, particulate emission from diesel engines is one of the pollutants of most concern. As a result, particulate emission control from urban bus diesel engines using particle filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in the US. A project entitled, “Clean Diesel Vehicle Air Quality Project” has been initiated by NY City Transit under the supervision of NYSDEC and with active participation from several industry partners. Under this program, 25 NY City transit buses with DDC Series 50 engines have been equipped with continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter systems and have been operating with ultra low sulfur diesel (< 30 ppm S) in transit service in Manhattan since February 2000. These buses were evaluated over a 9 month period for operations, maintainability and durability of the particulate filter.
Book

Diesel Particulate Filter Technology

2007-03-28
Until recently, the complexity of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system has hindered its commercial success. Stringent regulations of diesel emissions has lead to advancements in this technology, therefore mainstreaming the use of DPFs in light- and heavy-duty diesel filtration applications. This book covers the latest and most important research in DPF systems, focusing mainly on the advancements of the years 2002-2006. Editor Timothy V. Johnson selected the top 29 SAE papers covering the most significant research in this technology.
Technical Paper

Development of a Diesel Particulate Filter Composition and Its Effect on Thermal Durability and Filtration Performance

1994-03-01
940235
This paper details the development of the EX-80 composition, a new cordierite material for use as a diesel particulate filter (DPF), that was developed based on the following objectives; (1) improved thermal durability, (2) high filtration efficiency and (3) low pressure drop. The achievement of these goals was demonstrated through engine testing, stress modeling, and other evaluations. EX-80 has a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) averaging less than 4x10-7°C-1 (25°C-800°C), the Modulus of Rupture (MOR) averages greater than 350 psi and the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) averages less than 0.8 x 106 psi. The improvement of these three properties has resulted in improved thermal durability for EX-80 as compared to the current Corning DPF compositions (EX-47, EX-54 and EX-66). The new cordierite composition has been designed to achieve a low pressure drop as a function of soot loading (0.30 inHg/gm of soot collected), coupled with high efficiency, averaging greater than 90%.
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