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Technical Paper

Effects of Piston Crevice Flows and Lubricant Oil Vaporization on Diesel Engine Deposits

The effect of piston ring pack crevice flow and lubricant oil vaporization on heavy-duty diesel engine deposits is investigated numerically using a multidimensional CFD code, KIVA3V, coupled with Chemkin II, and computational grids that resolve part of the crevice region appropriately. Improvements have been made to the code to be able to deal with the complex geometry of the ring pack, and sub-models for the crevice flow dynamics, lubricating oil vaporization and combustion, soot formation and deposition were also added to the code. Eight parametric cases were simulated under reacting conditions using detailed chemical kinetics to determine the effects of variations of lube-oil film thickness, distribution of the oil film thickness, number of injection pulses, and the main injection timing on engine soot deposition. The results show that crevice-borne hydrocarbon species play an important role in deposit formation on crevice surfaces.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Degradation Rates of Lubricating Oil in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The specific goal of this project was to determine if there is a difference in the lube oil degradation rates in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with an EGR system, as compared to the same configuration of the engine, but minus the EGR system. A secondary goal was to develop FTIR analysis of used lube oil as a sensitive technique for rapid evaluation of the degradation properties of lubricants. The test engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to meet the 2004 emissions standards. The most significant changes in the lubricant occurred during the first 50-100 hours of operation. The results clearly demonstrated that the use of EGR has a significant impact on the degradation of the engine lubricant.
Journal Article

Transient, Three Dimensional CFD Model of the Complete Engine Lubrication System

This paper reports on a comprehensive, crank-angle transient, three dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the complete lubrication system of a multi-cylinder engine using the CFD software Simerics-Sys / PumpLinx. This work represents an advance in system-level modeling of the engine lubrication system over the current state of the art of one-dimensional models. The model was applied to a 16 cylinder, reciprocating internal combustion engine lubrication system. The computational domain includes the positive displacement gear pump, the pressure regulation valve, bearings, piston pins, piston cooling jets, the oil cooler, the oil filter etc… The motion of the regulation valve was predicted by strongly coupling a rigorous force balance on the valve to the flow.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Liquid Lubricant Development Part I: Engine Tests

A high horsepower, low heat rejection diesel engine is being developed to meet future Army heavy combat vehicle requirements. This engine features high power output in a compact design that is oil-cooled allowing for a significant reduction in radiator size. This design requires a lubricant which can survive a sump temperature of 160°C, for 300 hours with transient sump temperature surges to over 177°C. A comprehensive high temperature lubricant development program has been initiated to address the need for this new design. A modified Cummins 10 liter diesel engine was used to simulate the operating condition of this low heat rejection engine. The premium commercial lubricant that was tested survived only 58 hours before completely losing oxidative stability. Several of the experimental lubricants completed the 200-hour peak torque endurance test.
Technical Paper

Survey of Winter '93 Low Sulphur Diesel Fuels in the U.S.

Reports of disabling diesel engine seal failures which accompanied the introduction of low sulfur diesel fuel in October '93 prompted an in-depth survey of diesel fuel chemical and physical properties. The purpose of the survey was to anticipate other possible problems which might arise with the newly introduced low sulfur fuels. The survey will produce a database containing over 1000 number 2 diesel fuels from various parts of the US. About 75% of the samples tested were on-highway low sulfur diesel fuels. Samples analyzed were from the D-A Lubricant Company, Cummins customers failures (truck fleets of various sizes), and a number of retail fueling stations. Properties under investigation are % Sulfur, Cloud/Pour Points, Viscosity, API Gravity, TAN/TBN, Boiling Range, Aromatics content, Heat Content, Lubricity, and Peroxide number.
Technical Paper

Plastic Oil Rings for Diesel Engines: A Preliminary Evaluation

The ability of a piston oil ring to conform to liner distortions during engine operation is directly related to its radial stiffness. The ability to conform is also very important for controlling lubricant oil consumption and emissions. This paper describes the procedure utilized to investigate the technical feasibility of using flexible high performance engineering plastics to replace metal as base material for oil rings. Bench tests and engines were used to select and evaluate different types of plastics for wear resistance and structural integrity. Engine test results indicated no structural failures but wear levels were found to be unacceptably high for use in durable heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Simulating the Lubrication System of a Diesel Engine

The entire engine lubrication system has been represented by a series-parallel network of flow passages and flow elements. The pressure distribution and flow rates in the network were computed according to pressure-flow characteristics of each element. The pressure-flow relationship for each network element was estimated using empirical pipe friction, expansion, and bend loss coefficients, as well as by using test rig results and a steady-state journal bearing model. The journal bearing model is basically that of the classical short bearing model with provision for heat transfer to the oil and the relative thermal growth of the journal and bearing system. When compared with diesel engine tests, the simulation predicted the pressure distribution throughout the engine and the flow rate through each branch within 10%.
Technical Paper

HEUI - A New Direction for Diesel Engine Fuel Systems

Caterpillar Inc. has developed a new diesel engine fuel system, powered by hydraulics and controlled electronically. This Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector, (HEUI), requires no mechanical actuating or mechanical control devices, and offers many advantages over conventional fuel injection systems. Inherent features of the HEUI Fuel System include injection pressure control independent of engine load or speed, totally flexible injection timing, and full electronic control of injection parameters. Packaging the HEUI Fuel System on an engine is simple, as the injector is compact and available in a variety of configurations. The hydraulic actuating circuit is straightforward, using lubricating oil from the engine sump. Hydraulic lines may be internal to the engine or external. This paper describes the Caterpillar HEUI Fuel System, its operating features, performance advantages, and application to diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Lubrication Aspects of a Modified Hypocycloid Engine

The modified hypocycloid (MH) mechanism, which uses gears to produce straight line motion, has been proposed as an alternative to the slider-crank mechanism for internal combustion (IC) engines. Advantages of the MH mechanism over the slider-crank for an IC engine include the capability of perfect balancing with any number of cylinders and the absence of piston side loads. The elimination of piston side load has the potential for lower piston friction, reduced piston slap, and less susceptibility to cylinder liner cavitation. To evaluate the concept, an experimental single cylinder four-stroke engine which utilizes the MH mechanism is currently being built at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The MH engine has an increased number of friction interfaces compared to a conventional slider-crank engine due to additional bearings and the gear meshes. Thus, the lubrication of these components is an important issue in total MH engine friction.
Technical Paper

Frictional Performance Test for Transmission and Drive Train Oils

Lubricating oil affects the performance of friction materials in transmission, steering and brake systems. The TO-2 Test measured friction retention characteristics of lubricating oils used with sintered bronze friction discs. This paper introduces a new friction performance test for drive train lubricants that will be used to support Caterpillar's new transmission and drive train fluid requirements, TO-4, which measures static and dynamic friction, wear, and energy capacity for six friction materials, and replaces the TO-2 test. The new test device to be introduced is an oil cooled, single-faced clutch in the Link Engineering Co. M1158 Oil/Friction Test Machine.
Technical Paper

Development of a Bench Test to Detect Oils Corrosive to Engine Components

Corrosive wear of non-ferrous engine components by lubricants is a concern of all major heavy duty diesel engine manufacturers since warranty on key engine components has been extended to 500,000 miles. Several commercial lubricants have been linked to premature cam and rod bearing failures induced by corrosion in certain fleets. Although the overall failure rate is low, specific fleets have experienced significantly higher failure rates due to the lubricants used. These failures usually occur at high mileages but less than 500,000 miles. This kind of slow corrosion easily escapes detection of engine tests contained in current oil specifications, and it represents a serious issue in long term warranty cost to diesel engine manufacturers. A comprehensive fleet database has been established to identify the most corrosive lubricants. These lubricants have served as reference oils to develop a corrosion bench test.