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GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-05-29
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Technical Paper

An Integrated Design and Appraisal System for Vehicle Interior Packaging

2007-04-16
2007-01-0459
Static seating bucks have long been used as the only means to subjectively appraise the vehicle interior packages in the vehicle development process. The appraisal results have traditionally been communicated back to the requesting engineers either orally or in a written format. Any design changes have to be made separately after the appraisal is completed. Further, static seating bucks lack the flexibility to accommodate design iterations during the evolution of a vehicle program. The challenge has always been on how to build a seating buck quickly enough to support the changing needs of vehicle programs, especially in the early vehicle development phases. There is always a disconnect between what the seating buck represents and what is in the latest design (CAD), since it takes weeks or months to build a seating buck and by the time it is built the design has already been evolved. There is also no direct feedback from seating buck appraisal to the design in CAD.
Technical Paper

Application of Tailor Rolled Blank in Vehicle Front End for Frontal Impact

2007-04-16
2007-01-0675
Lighter weight and lower cost have been pursued in automotive industry. Traditionally, metal sheets of uniform thickness are used for stamping or forming vehicle structural parts. For a desired structure, a metal sheet with varying thickness is desirable. It not only saves material but also increases design flexibility. For example, some areas of a cross member require thicker thicknesses to support localized, larger loading, while for other areas, where there is no localized loading, thinner thicknesses can be used to save material. Tailor Rolled Blank (TRB) is an emerging manufacturing technology which allows engineers to change blank thickness continuously within a sheet metal, virtually eliminating the need for welding local reinforcements in the part. TRB also provides simpler structural design due to smooth, rolled transitions, which prevent stress concentrations in the finished part.
Technical Paper

Combining Flow Losses at Circular T-Junctions Representative of Intake Plenum and Primary Runner Interface

2007-04-16
2007-01-0649
The interface between a plenum and primary runner in log-style intake manifolds is one of the dominant sources of flow losses in the breathing system of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). A right-angled T-junction is one such interface between the plenum (main duct) and the primary runner (sidebranch) normal to the plenum's axis. The present study investigates losses associated with the combining flow through these junctions, where fluid from both sides of the plenum enters the primary runner. Steady, incompressible-flow experiments for junctions with circular cross-sections were conducted to determine the effect of (1) runner interface radius of 0, 10, and 20% of the plenum diameter, (2) plenum-to-runner area ratio of 1, 2.124, and 3.117, and (3) runner taper area ratio of 2.124 and 3.117. Mass flow rate in each branch was varied to obtain a distribution of flow ratios, while keeping the total flow rate constant.
Technical Paper

Transient Dynamic Analysis of Suspension System for Component Fatigue Life Estimation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0638
For suspension systems, fatigue and strength simulations are accomplished mostly at the component level. However, the selection of loading conditions and replication of boundary conditions at the component level may be difficult. A system level simulation eliminates most of the discrepancy between component level and vehicle level environment yielding realistic results. Further advantage of system level simulation is that the boundary conditions are limited to suspension mounting points at body or frame and the loading is limited to wheel-end or tire patch loading. This provides for a robust set of boundary constraints that are known and repeatable, and loads that are simpler and of relatively higher accuracy. Here, the nonlinear transient dynamic behavior of a suspension system along with its frame and mounting was simulated using a multibody finite element analysis (FEA).
Technical Paper

Eliminating Drum Brake Squeal by a Damped Iron Drum Assembly

2007-04-16
2007-01-0592
Control of drum brake squeal is difficult to accomplish. After many trials guided by CAE and previous experience, for a passenger car it was felt that changing the metallurgical characteristics of the drum would lead to improved noise performance. The chemistry of the drum casting material was altered. The carbon equivalent was modified by increasing carbon and silicon content of the castings as well as changing the other materials. The integral hub and drum assembly was tested on two different dynamometers. The results were also verified by finite element complex eigenvalue analysis. Finally the solution was validated through vehicle level testing - Los Angeles City Traffic (LACT). For the structural consideration rotary fatigue was evaluated by CAE comparison followed by test rig confirmation. The higher carbon equivalent material drums successfully eliminated the annoying squeal in customer vehicles.
Technical Paper

Neat Biodiesel Fuel Engine Tests and Preliminary Modelling

2007-04-16
2007-01-0616
Engine performance and emission comparisons were made between the use of 100% soy, Canola and yellow grease derived biodiesel fuels and an ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel in the oxygen deficient regions, i.e. full or high load engine operations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was extensively applied to initiate low temperature combustion. An intake throttling valve was implemented to increase the differential pressure between the intake and exhaust in order to increase and enhance the EGR. The intake temperature, pressure, and EGR levels were modulated to improve the engine fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions. Furthermore, a preliminary ignition delay correlation under the influence of EGR was developed. Preliminary low temperature combustion modelling of the biodiesel and diesel fuels was also conducted. The research intends to achieve simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxides and soot emissions in modern production diesel engines when biodiesel is applied.
Technical Paper

Effect of Weld Geometry and HAZ Softening on Fatigue Performance of DP780 GMAW Lap Joint

2007-04-16
2007-01-0632
With the increasing demand for safety, energy saving and emission reduction, Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have become very attractive materials for automobile makers. Welding of AHSS remains one of the technical challenges in the successful application of AHSS in automobile structures, especially when durability of the welded structures is required. In this study, 2.0 mm uncoated DP780 was investigated. GMAW welding parameters for lap joints of this steel were developed in order to obtain different weld geometries defined by weld toe angle, weld leg sizes, and weld penetration. Metallurgical properties of the joints were evaluated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Static and fatigue tests were conducted on the welded joints. Effect of weld geometry and HAZ softening on fatigue performance including fatigue life, crack initiation site and propagation path of the joints will be analyzed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Materials Stack-ups on Fatigue Performance of DP780 and Aluminized Coated Boron Steel GMAW Lap Joint

2007-04-16
2007-01-0634
In this study, fatigue performance of Gas Metal Arc Welded (GMAW) joint for 1.5 mm uncoated DP780 and 1.0 mm and aluminized coated boron (or USIBOR) steel was investigated. Metallurgical properties of DP780 to coated boron steel dissimilar steel lap joints were evaluated using optical microscopy. Microhardness traverse, static and fatigue tests were conducted on these joints. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to identify the stress distribution of the weld joints with different stack-ups and at same loading conditions. It was found that position of the material (top or bottom in lap joint configuration) had a significant impact on fatigue performance of the dissimilar joint. The amount of heat introduced by welding to coated boron steel is also believed to be important to the fatigue performance of the dissimilar joints. The findings in this study can be used when aluminized boron steel is involved in dissimilar steel and dissimilar thickness GMAW lap joint design.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Diesel Spray Impingement and Fuel Film Characteristics Using Refractive Index Matching Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0485
The fuel film thickness resulting from diesel fuel spray impingement was measured in a chamber at conditions representative of early injection timings used for low temperature diesel combustion. The adhered fuel volume and the radial distribution of the film thickness are presented. Fuel was injected normal to the impingement surface at ambient temperatures of 353 K, 426 K and 500 K, with densities of 10 kg/m3 and 25 kg/m3. Two injectors, with nozzle diameters of 100 μm and 120 μm, were investigated. The results show that the fuel film volume was strongly affected by the ambient temperature, but was minimally affected by the ambient density. The peak fuel film thickness and the film radius were found to increase with decreased temperature. The fuel film was found to be circular in shape, with an inner region of nearly constant thickness. The major difference observed with temperature was a decrease in the radial extent of the film.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the THOR and Hybrid III Lower Extremities in Laboratory Testing

2007-04-16
2007-01-1168
A comparison of the 50th percentile male THOR-LX and Hybrid III 50th percentile male dummy lower leg was conducted via component and full scale barrier testing. In the component tests, isolated THOR-LX and Hybrid III lower legs were impacted in two different test set-ups where the tibia was impacted at three different impact points. The foot without a shoe was impacted in two different test set-ups at six different impact points. A shoe impact study was also conducted to determine the effect of a shoe on the results and to determine how many impacts a shoe can withstand at each point before properties of the shoe begin to change. For these tests, the THOR-LX and Hybrid III lower legs were repeatedly impacted at four different points on the foot with a shoe. For the full scale barrier testing, the THOR-LX or Hybrid III lower legs were attached to a belted Hybrid III 50th percentile male dummy. The dummy was positioned in a compact car for each test.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Validation and Dynamic Analysis of Diesel Pushrod Overhead Bridged Valve Train

2007-04-16
2007-01-1256
A bridged valve train configuration exhibits complex dynamic behavior due to the uniqueness of the special elephant foot/bridge/valve structure. Consequently, this system arrangement presents significant design challenges in system stability at high speed, high load, wear, no-follow and valve seating velocity, etc. An efficient way to gain a thorough understanding of the behavior of this type of valve train system and to drive the valve train design improvement is through the use of an effective dynamic simulation tool. In this paper, an advanced CAE tool developed by Ford Motor Company for the bridged type valve train simulations has been described. This automated CAE tool provides a complete virtual ADAMS-based simulation environment for the pushrod bridged valve train system analysis. This paper also presents the correlation and validation between the simulations and the measurements. The design analysis for the bridged valve train has been discussed briefly in this paper.
Technical Paper

Thermal and Chemical Aging of Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1266
The effects of thermal and chemical aging on the performance of cordierite-based and high-porosity mullite-based diesel particulate filters (DPFs), were quantified, particularly their filtration efficiency, pressure drop, and regeneration capability. Both catalyzed and uncatalyzed core-size samples were tested in the lab using a diesel fuel burner and a chemical reactor. The diesel fuel burner generated carbonaceous particulate matter with a pre-specified particle-size distribution, which was loaded in the DPF cores. As the particulate loading evolved, measurements were made for the filtration efficiency and pressure drop across the filter using, respectively, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a pressure transducer. In a subsequent process and on a different bench system, the regeneration capability was tested by measuring the concentration of CO plus CO2 evolved during the controlled oxidation of the carbonaceous species previously deposited on the DPF samples.
Technical Paper

Design of Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems Using Heat Load Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1196
The objective of this paper is to describe a Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) model and its applications for A/C system development at early design stages. This CAE tool calculates the heat load of the vehicle passenger compartment with considerations of solar radiation, conductive/convective heat transfer through the body shell, and any passengers present in the vehicle. A data bank of 6 glass types, 9 surface finishes and 15 material properties are available to increase simulation flexibility. This heat load model can be used as a stand alone tool to calculate the steady-state thermal load of the passenger compartment under users' pre-defined conditions. When interfaced with an A/C refrigerant subsystem model, this integrated CAE tool is capable of evaluating the impacts on A/C system performance when body structures and/or operating conditions are changed.
Technical Paper

Gas Metal Arc Welding of Coated Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) - Developments for Improved Weld Quality

2007-04-16
2007-01-1360
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is commonly used in the automotive industry for joining heavier gauge mild and High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) uncoated steels, where it is recognized for its versatility and speed. The only constraints typically encountered relate to fatigue performance of the joint as a result of poor design or manufacturing fit-up. Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS), now being considered for more and more applications, however, do not offer the same ease of welding and process control is significantly more critical. They differ from mild steels in chemical composition and thermal processing, resulting in a different microstructure; designed with a richer metallurgy to have higher strength at equivalent thickness. As a result, the sensitivity to heat input is greater and the process window in which acceptable welds can be achieved is narrower.
Technical Paper

Resistance Spot Weldability of Three Metal Stack Dual Phase 600 Hot-dipped Galvanized Steel

2007-04-16
2007-01-1363
Fuel economy and federal safety regulations are driving automotive companies to use Dual Phase and other Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) in vehicle body structures. Joining and assembly plays a crucial role in the selection of these steels. Specifications are available for the resistance spot welding (RSW) of lower strength sheet steels, covering many aspects of the welding process from the stabilization procedure to endurance testing. Currently, specifications in the automotive industry for RSW with AHSS are limited. It is well known that welding of a thickness ratio greater than 1:2 poses a challenge. To utilize thinner gauge AHSS panels on body-in-white, welding schedules to join the thin to thick sheet steel stack-up are needed. Most of the existing published work was conducted on uncoated sheets and welded to the same thickness.
Technical Paper

Effect of Materials Stack-ups and Microhardness Distribution on Fatigue Performance of DP600 and Boron Steel GMAW Lap Joint

2007-04-16
2007-01-1356
With the increasing demand for safety, energy saving and emission reduction, Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have become very attractive materials for automobile makers. The usage of AHSS materials is projected to grow significantly in the next 5-10 years with new safety and fuel economy regulations. These new materials have significant manufacturing challenges, particularly for welding and stamping. Welding of AHSS remains one of the technical challenges in the successful application of AHSS in automobile structures, especially when durability of the welded structures is required. In this study, 2.0 mm uncoated DP600 and 2.0 mm uncoated boron (heat treated) steel lap joint configuration was investigated. Metallurgical properties of the DP600 to boron steel dissimilar steel lap joints were evaluated using optical microscopy. Static and fatigue tests were conducted on these joints.
Technical Paper

Driver Airbag Linear Impactor Dynamic Testing Method and Data Analysis

2006-04-03
2006-01-1436
A sub-system test method for driver air bags has been established to quantify their dynamic restraint capability. The sub-system includes a driver airbag module as well as a steering wheel with rim supported. The test is called Driver Air Bag Linear Impactor Test – Dynamic (DABLIT-D). This test method can be used for not only A to B comparisons, but also for evaluating the performance of any DAB module design in general. A variety of impactor, pendulum and drop tower test methods are currently used at suppliers. DABLIT-D is aimed to standardize airbag testing. A DOE test series was done to determine the best test parameters. Production and prototype hardware were tested to investigate the characteristics of the sub-assemblies that provide restraint capability. A modification of the Weibull function was used to characterize the resultant data.
Technical Paper

Method Development for Evaluating Microbiological Growth on and Attachment to Aluminum Air Conditioner Evaporator Core Surfaces

2006-04-03
2006-01-1645
Corrosion failures of aluminum air conditioner evaporator cores have been reported in regions where the climate is relatively warm and humid. Microbiologically-influenced corrosion [MIC] has been implicated in these failures. Application of surface-treatment chemicals may inhibit microbiological (bacterial) growth and/or attachment, thereby reducing the potential for MIC. In this study, two laboratory methods were developed to evaluate selected surface-treatment chemicals for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and reduce bacterial attachment to treated surfaces. Using the developed methods, two controlled-atmosphere brazed aluminum core materials and three surface-treatment chemicals were evaluated. Neither of the untreated core materials was found to inhibit the growth of the bacteria tested.
Technical Paper

A Nonlinear Transient CAE Method for Vehicle Shift Quality Prediction

2006-04-03
2006-01-1640
Automatic transmission gear changes are transient disturbances in a non-linear system, during which the effective ratio of the transmission is continually changing. In addition, vehicle characteristics can very strongly influence customer perception of the shift event. Further, the interface elements between the vehicle and powertrain are often crucial in determining the quality of shift feel. This paper presents a validated CAE method that employs the ADAMS software to predict the intricate dynamics of the vehicle response due to transmission shift events. First principles of the transmission modeling elements are described. Model simulation results are compared to vehicle test data. A method to quantify the customer's perception of vehicle shift quality is discussed. Model simulation results for a FWD vehicle application are also analyzed.
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