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Technical Paper

Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report, 2000

2000-06-19
2000-01-2196
The Automotive Market in the United States is moving in the direction of more Light Trucks and fewer Small Cars. The customers for these vehicles have not changed, only their purchase decisions. Cummins has studied the requirements of this emerging market. Design and development of an engine system that will meet these customer needs has started. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of early testing are presented which show that the diesel is possibly a good solution.
Technical Paper

Visual Thermodynamics: Processes in Log(p)-Log(T) Space

1999-03-01
1999-01-0516
A new technique has been developed to allow engine performance engineers to visualize and communicate a wide range of thermodynamic issues and constraints in a single diagram. The technique, called Visual Thermodynamics, is the presentation of engine cycle data in logarithmic pressure and logarithmic temperature space, log(p)-log(T). Visual Thermodynamics is a thought organization and concept visualization tool. It is not intended to provide high-precision numerical results. The utility of the technique is in comparing engine concepts, assessing trends, identifying boundaries of operation and building a general understanding of engine system behavior. The technique provides a powerful mechanism for communicating engine thermodynamic issues to both technical and non-technical colleagues.
Technical Paper

Electronic Systems Integration: The Engine Manufacturer's Perspective

1996-10-01
962179
The increased use of on-board and off-board electronic systems with medium duty and heavy duty trucks and buses presents challenges with compatibility and proper integration. The vehicle architecture is taking shape to establish three areas of computer control-the powertrain, the cab instrument panel, and the cab operations center. The critical element of pursuing proper integration of these systems requires established and clear standards and test methods. Clear roles and responsibilities, a defined system architecture and common test methods are required between subsystem electronic product suppliers and vehicle manufacturers. The electronics integration challenges are presented in the context of the U.S. medium duty and heavy duty automotive industry but have broad applicability to other heavy vehicles and markets worldwide. SAE and ISO forums are needed to address these issues.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Measured and Theoretical Inter-Ring Gas Pressure on a Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
961909
Inter-ring gas pressure and piston ring motion are considered important for the control of oil consumption, particulate emissions, and reduced friction. For this reason, inter-ring gas pressure was measured on a diesel engine. Two different ring pack configurations were tested (positive and negative twist second rings). A significant difference in measured inter-ring pressure was observed. The measurements were compared to the predictions of a cylinder kit model with favorable results. Predictions showed that the observed difference between measured inter-ring pressures is caused by a significant difference in ring motion. The reasons for these differences are explained in this paper.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of the Lucas Combustion Noise Meter on Cummins ‘B’ Series Engines

1987-08-01
870952
Lucas Industries Noise Centre has introduced a combustion noise meter which is designed to predict the contribution of the combustion process to overall diesel engine noise. The performance of the meter is evaluated using Cummins B series engines in naturally-aspirated and turbocharged form. Combustion noise levels predicted by the meter are compared to levels determined using traditional techniques. The effects of several engine operating parameters on combustion noise are investigated under both steady state and accelerating conditions. The meter reliably predicts changes in combustion noise levels, and is a useful tool for performance development engineers. Combustion noise is shown to be related to the maximum rate of pressure rise at the onset of combustion, but combustion noise is not reliably related to maximum cylinder pressures.
Technical Paper

Test Cell Simulation of the Driveby Noise Test

1987-08-01
870967
Diesel engine manufacturers have traditionally done most engine noise development work under steady: state operating conditions. However, truck driveby noise tests are acceleration tests, and engines exhibit different noise behavior under accelerating conditions. Acceleration noise can be affected by engine performance parameters which may have no influence on steady state noise levels. In this study, a test cell simulation of the truck driveby procedure has been developed and evaluated. Test cell simulation and truck driveby results are compared for a naturally-aspirated and a turbocharged engine. This simulation procedure has been shown to predict reliably results measured in vehicles. As a result, the simulation can be used to evaluate engine modifications during the development process without requiring a vehicle installation.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Component Analysis for Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

1989-09-01
891900
Detailed thermal analysis was conducted on several advanced cylinder head, liner, and piston concepts, for low heat rejection diesel engines. The analysis was used to define an optimized engine configuration. Results pointed to the strategic use of oil cooling and insulation in the cylinder head, an oil cooled cylinder liner, and an insulated piston, with separate insulation behind the compression rings. Such a configuration reduced in-cylinder heat rejection by 30 percent, while durability would be expected to be maintained or improved from today's production levels.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurements on the Effect of Insulated Pistons on Engine Performance and Heat Transfer

1996-02-01
960317
Data have been gathered to compare the performance of steel crown pistons coated with yttria stabilized zirconia or mullite to an uncoated piston. The effect of coated pistons on in-cylinder heat transfer was determined from curves of ISFC versus centroid of heat release. Error analysis of the measurements showed uncertainty of ± 3% in ISFC and ± 2 crank angle degrees in the centroid of heat release could be expected for the data. Particulate emissions increased at advanced injection timings with the mullite coated piston while the zirconia coated piston showed an increase in particulate and NOx at advanced timings.
Technical Paper

The Piston Ring Shape and Its Effects on Engine Performance

1996-02-01
960052
The paper presents the latest research results on the piston ring free shape. A new free shape measurement method with optical gauging was developed. Three numerical models to compute the contact force distribution of piston ring were developed using finite element analysis (FEA). These numerical methods have been compared each other, and validated with the experimental results of ring deformation in a ring gage. The contact force distribution of a piston ring at working condition was also studied. It consists of the ring thermal boundary conditions (RTBC) validation, 3-D FEA thermal analysis and thermal contact force computation based on validated wire-cable element model. The RTBC for heavy duty diesel engine has been validated for the first time using a CUMMINS L10 engine test. Three different free shapes have been tested. The wear band measurements of tested rings all show tremendous improvements over the standard top ring.
Technical Paper

Experimental Results on the Effect of Piston Surface Roughness and Porosity on Diesel Engine Combustion

1996-02-01
960036
Measurements have been made to determine the effect of piston crown surface properties on combustion. Back-to-back engine tests were conducted to compare surface modified pistons to a production piston. Each modified piston was found to prolong combustion duration. Porous coatings and a non porous, roughened piston were observed to increase fuel consumption. Increase in fuel consumption was determined to be the result of increased heat release duration. The data show surface roughness alone affects the duration of heat release. The shift in magnitude of the centroid of heat release was similar to the shift observed in insulated engine experiments.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Component Design Using the Finite Element Method and Interactive Graphics

1974-02-01
740337
An inexpensive, flexible and convenient finite element analysis system can be implemented with limited capital and resources. A system of this nature can be a functional tool of the designer and stress analyst for the analysis of many types of mechanical components. The finite element models generated by this system can approach a high degree of complexity with a small time investment compared to the time required to do this job without the aid of the system described.
Technical Paper

Design Aspects of Low-Noise Diesel Engines

1973-02-01
730246
Methods of reducing the noise level of a diesel engine include the suppression of the major modes of block vibration and treatment of the external surfaces. Design methods enable the frequencies and noise levels of these modes to be calculated for a conventionally designed engine. The important modes of vibration, the noise signature and the effect of block modifications of a standard production V-8 engine were found by experiments. These provided the basis for the design of an experimental low-noise engine. Design features include a suffer block, removal of the bottom part of the crankcase skirt, the addition of a single bearing beam, and the use of isolated panels and damped surfaces. The noise reduction obtained was 9 dBA. Most of this is due to the use of isolated and damped nonload carrying surfaces.
Technical Paper

Cummins K-Series Engines

1974-02-01
740036
New heavy-duty diesel engines of 6-, 8-, 12-, and 16-cyl rated 75 hp/cyl turbocharged and 100 hp/cyl turbocharged and aftercooled are being developed. Design and development objectives include maximizing engine durability/reliability and use of common parts in all engine models. Fuel consumption, smoke, exhaust gas emissions, and engine noise equal or better than the best current engines within engine configurations readily adaptable to current automotive and construction equipment are also prime considerations. Initial models of the engine series meet the design and development objectives.
Technical Paper

Vechicle Testing of Cummins Turbocompound Diesel Engine

1981-02-01
810073
Two turbocompound diesel engines were assembled and dynamometer tested in preparation for vehicle tests. Both engines met the 1980 California gaseous emission requirement and achieved a minimum BSFC of .313 lb/bhp-hr and a BSFC at rated conditions of .323 lb/bhp-hr. These engines were then installed in Class VIII heavy-duty vehicles to determine the fuel consumption and performance characteristics. Fuel consumption testing showed a 14.8% improvement for the turbocompound engine in comparison to a production NTC-400 used as a baseline. The turbocompound engine also achieved lower noise levels, improved drive-ability, improved gradeability, and moderately increased engine retardation. The second turbocompound engine was placed in commercial service and accumulated 50,000 miles on a cross-country route without malfunction. Tank mileage revealed a 15.92% improvement over a production NTCC-400 which was operating on the same route.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study of the Transient Evaporating Spray Mixing Process in the Diesel Environment

1983-10-31
831735
Some results of a systematic study of the effects of fuel and chamber gas properties on the transient evaporating spray mixing process are presented. The study uses an existing two-dimensional stochastic thick spray model. The results show that the combustion process in typical heavy duty, quiescent, DI diesel engines can be mixing limited rather than vaporization limited. In addition, the results show that the mixing process of a transient evaporating spray is characterized by the combined effects of fuel evaporation and its turbulent mixing with the surrounding air. In general, increasing the evaporation rate alone does not necessarily increase the fuel-air mixing rate. Furthermore, two dimensionless parameters have been used to quantify the relative effects of fuel and chamber gas properties on the transient spray evaporation process. Finally, through detailed comparisons between spray and gas jet results, the transient evaporating spray mixing process is better understood.
Technical Paper

Combination Diesel Engine - Air Compressor - “The Dual Diesel”

1966-02-01
660741
Until recently, dry cargo has been unloaded from trucks by use of compressed air. By making the automotive engine act partly as an air compressor during the unloading operation, the auxiliary air compressor mounted on the tractor frame can be eliminated. This paper, in describing the dual diesel, discusses operating characteristics, cycle analysis, and operational problems.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Model for the Formation of Nitric Oxide in Direct Injection Diesel Engines and Its Application in Parametric Studies

1973-02-01
730083
A semiempirical, mathematical model describing the formation of nitric oxide in direct-injection diesel engines is derived. The model is used in conjunction with injection and thermodynamic cycle simulation programs. This approach enables prediction of nitric oxide emissions from design dimensions and operating parameters only, without the use of experimental data. Predicted results are compared with experiments for typical naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines. The accuracy of prediction is very good except under light-load naturally aspirated conditions. The model is used in an extensive parametric study, together with experimental verification. The agreement between prediction and experiments is excellent, except under conditions of excessive smoke or of high swirl.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Characteristics of the Automotive Diesel

1966-02-01
660550
The production of pollutants and an increasing need for pollution management are an inevitable concomitant of a society with a high standard of living. The automotive diesel engine is used more than any other type of engine for transporting freight over highways. Two kinds of pollution to be considered with regard to the diesel engine are the dark exhaust smoke and odor, of which the public is quite cognizant, and the less obvious but possibly toxic carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and trace compounds of other toxic materials. This paper discusses sampling, measurement techniques, and established standards for exhaust smoke and odor. Examination of diesel exhaust shows it to be less offensive in terms of harmful effects than the invisible exhaust from other types of engines. The major problem is exhaust color and odor.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Noise Reduction Hardware for Vehicle Noise Control

1973-02-01
730681
A range of noise reduction hardware is described for three production engine models, as well as the rationale for selecting noise reduction methods. Noise reductions up to 6 dB(A) were achieved with this hardware in the test cell. In many cases the modifications are more effective in vehicles. The success of the hardware in reducing overall vehicle noise is illustrated.
Technical Paper

Cooling Higher Horsepower Highway Diesel Engines

1975-02-01
750131
The increase in power-to-weight ratio that results from the use of higher-horsepower diesel engines in highway service prompted this study of engine cooling. This paper covers the results obtained in testing different power-to-weight ratios on grades from sea level to over 11,000 ft and compares these results with those obtained from chassis and towing dynamometer cooling trials.
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