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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Microalloyed Steel for Articulated Piston Applications in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1232
AISI-4140H steel has been used as articulated piston crown material in heavy-duty engines. With the driving force for reducing manufacturing cost, microalloyed steel (MAS) was identified as a low-cost material to replace 4140H steel. In order to determine the feasibility of using MAS to replace 4140H steel, a test program was initiated to fully evaluate the material properties of MAS and to compare them to those of the baseline 4140H steel. The physical and mechanical properties of both materials from room temperature to 550°C were evaluated. The effect of long term thermal exposure on the material properties was also studied. Some engine tests were also conducted to evaluate the performance of the articulated pistons made with both materials. The inherently lower strength of MAS as compared to 4140H steel, requires a total re-design of the piston for the utilization of MAS as a low-cost replacement material for 4140H steel.
Technical Paper

Tribological Investigations for an Insulated Diesel Engine

1983-02-01
830319
A Minimum Cooled Engine (MCE) has been successfully run for 250 hours at rated condition of 298 kW and 1900 rpm. This engine was all metallic without any coolant in the block and lower part of the heads. Ring/liner/lubricant system and thermal loading on the liner at top ring reversal (TRR) as well as on the piston are presented and discussed. Ring/liner wear is given as well as oil consumption and blow-by data during the endurance run. Another engine build with a different top ring coating and several lubricants suggested that a 1500 hours endurance run of MCE is achievable. Rig test data for screening ring materials and synthetic lubricants necessary for a successful operation of a so-called Adiabatic Engine with the ring/ceramic liner (SiN) interface temperature up to 650°C are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study of the Transient Evaporating Spray Mixing Process in the Diesel Environment

1983-10-31
831735
Some results of a systematic study of the effects of fuel and chamber gas properties on the transient evaporating spray mixing process are presented. The study uses an existing two-dimensional stochastic thick spray model. The results show that the combustion process in typical heavy duty, quiescent, DI diesel engines can be mixing limited rather than vaporization limited. In addition, the results show that the mixing process of a transient evaporating spray is characterized by the combined effects of fuel evaporation and its turbulent mixing with the surrounding air. In general, increasing the evaporation rate alone does not necessarily increase the fuel-air mixing rate. Furthermore, two dimensionless parameters have been used to quantify the relative effects of fuel and chamber gas properties on the transient spray evaporation process. Finally, through detailed comparisons between spray and gas jet results, the transient evaporating spray mixing process is better understood.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Insulation Effect on the Performance of a Low Heat Rejection Cummins V-903 Engine

1986-03-01
860317
Cummins Engine Company is developing a low heat rejection 450 kW engine under contract for the US Army Tank & Automotive Command. This paper discusses progress made toward achieving the program goals of 6.6 kcal/kW-min brake specific heat rejection and 200 g/kW-hr brake specific fuel consumption. Methodology for measuring heat rejection on a low heat rejection engine is presented. Design improvements of the base engine are discussed along with their effect on improving fuel consumption. Performance test data is assessed in terms of the first law energy balance and cooling load distribution. The heat rejection data provides insights on the performance of insulating components and two cooling system designs. Diesel cycle simulations are compared to the test data and are used to predict the effect of ceramic insulation on engine heat rejection.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of the Lucas Combustion Noise Meter on Cummins ‘B’ Series Engines

1987-08-01
870952
Lucas Industries Noise Centre has introduced a combustion noise meter which is designed to predict the contribution of the combustion process to overall diesel engine noise. The performance of the meter is evaluated using Cummins B series engines in naturally-aspirated and turbocharged form. Combustion noise levels predicted by the meter are compared to levels determined using traditional techniques. The effects of several engine operating parameters on combustion noise are investigated under both steady state and accelerating conditions. The meter reliably predicts changes in combustion noise levels, and is a useful tool for performance development engineers. Combustion noise is shown to be related to the maximum rate of pressure rise at the onset of combustion, but combustion noise is not reliably related to maximum cylinder pressures.
Technical Paper

Cummins/TACOM Adiabatic Englue Program

1985-02-25
850356
Joint development of the adiabatic engine by Cummins Engine Company and the U. S. Army began with a feasibility analysis ten years ago. The effort was initially driven by the expectation of substantial performance improvement, a reduction in cooling system size, and several additional benefits. Program emphasis turned quickly to experimentation with the goal of demonstrating the feasibility of the adiabatic engine in working hardware. Several significant achievements were realized as have been reported earlier. Further development of the adiabatic engine is expected to be more evolutionary, paced by available technology in the areas of materials and tribology. Analysis capability necessary for insulated engine development has been found to be inadequate. Additional effort has gone into the development and validation of insulated engine analysis tools, both for cycle simulation and structural modeling.
Technical Paper

Reduced Durability due to a Friction Modifier in Heavy Duty Diesel Lubricants

1985-04-01
851260
RAPID CORROSIVE WEAR OF COPPER ALLOYS caused by a friction reducing additive was encountered in field tests of experimental lubricants. This oil soluble molybdenum, sulphur, and phosphorous containing additive subsequently was used in several commercial heavy duty diesel lubricants although the additive manufacturer did not recommend it for such applications. Numerous engine failures occurred due to the aggressiveness of this additive toward copper. Standard laboratory engine test methods or standard bench test methods did not predict the severe field problem. A new laboratory engine test method has been shown to duplicate the field failures. Bench test methods to duplicate the field failures are discussed. The mode of failure is shown and described.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Emulsified Fuels and Water Induction on Diesel Combustion

1970-02-01
700736
Water was inducted with the intake air and injected emulsified with the fuel, in a conventional single cylinder D.I. diesel engine. The major effects of inducted water were an increase in ignition delay, and reduction in the oxides of nitrogen and smoke at a constant fuel/air ratio. When the water was emulsified with the fuel, the ignition delay increased so much that no benefits were obtained except for a reduction in smoke. The results are compared to a similar study on an engine with the “M” combustion system. The major differences between the results obtained with the two combustion systems are attributed to the differences in the ignition delay caused by the water addition.
Technical Paper

Cummins V504 and V555 Engines

1971-02-01
710131
The Cummins V504 and V555 engines were developed for construction, industrial, agricultural, marine and medium duty automotive market requirements of lightweight, compact diesel engines in the 185-240 hp range. The engine design and development objectives were to obtain high reliability and durability combined with good overall efficiency in a compact package size. These objectives were achieved by careful attention to design details, combustion system development and extensive laboratory and field evaluation.
Technical Paper

A Transient Spray Mixing Model for Diesel Combustion

1976-02-01
760128
A transient spray mixing model forming the basis of heterogeneous combustion in direct injection diesel engines is described. Experimental results of transient fuel sprays in a high pressure, high temperature chamber form the basis of spray growth equations. Use of similarity of concentration profile across the spray in conjunction with spray geometry and mass conservation yields a complete description of spatial and temporal fuel-air distribution. Fuel preparation and air entrainment rates are calculated from the history of fuel-air distribution. Progressive evolution of combustion zones is determined by the fuel-air mixing process. Energy conservation and chemical kinetics calculations in each zone yield cylinder pressure and local nitric oxide concentration. The role of fuel-air mixing in diesel combustion is discussed. The model results are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Cavitation Intensity Measurements for Internal Combustion Engines

1996-02-01
960884
Recent engine design trends towards increasing power, reducing weight, advancing of injection timing and increasing of injection rate and pressure could result in increased incidence of liner pitting. Liner pitting due to coolant cavitation is a complex function of many engine design parameters and operating conditions as described in reference [1]*. Traditionally, liner cavitation problems were not detected early in the development cycle. Traditional liner vibration and coolant pressure measurements in conjunction with a numerous amount of expensive engine endurance tests were then needed to resolve cavitation problems. A method newly developed by the author and described in reference [2] for cavitation intensity measurements was successfully utilized to map out engine operating condition and develop limit curves. This method could also be applied in a non intrusive fashion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Results on the Effect of Piston Surface Roughness and Porosity on Diesel Engine Combustion

1996-02-01
960036
Measurements have been made to determine the effect of piston crown surface properties on combustion. Back-to-back engine tests were conducted to compare surface modified pistons to a production piston. Each modified piston was found to prolong combustion duration. Porous coatings and a non porous, roughened piston were observed to increase fuel consumption. Increase in fuel consumption was determined to be the result of increased heat release duration. The data show surface roughness alone affects the duration of heat release. The shift in magnitude of the centroid of heat release was similar to the shift observed in insulated engine experiments.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Characteristics of the Automotive Diesel

1966-02-01
660550
The production of pollutants and an increasing need for pollution management are an inevitable concomitant of a society with a high standard of living. The automotive diesel engine is used more than any other type of engine for transporting freight over highways. Two kinds of pollution to be considered with regard to the diesel engine are the dark exhaust smoke and odor, of which the public is quite cognizant, and the less obvious but possibly toxic carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and trace compounds of other toxic materials. This paper discusses sampling, measurement techniques, and established standards for exhaust smoke and odor. Examination of diesel exhaust shows it to be less offensive in terms of harmful effects than the invisible exhaust from other types of engines. The major problem is exhaust color and odor.
Technical Paper

Lube Oil Filtration Effect on Diesel Engine Wear

1971-02-01
710813
A series of comparative evaluation tests to determine the effect of various full-flow and combination full-flow and bypass filter systems on diesel engine piston ring and crankshaft bearings was made using radioactive tracer wear measurement and component weight loss techniques. The results of these tests indicate that bypass lube oil filtration combined with good full-flow lube oil filtration result in lowest engine wear rate and lowest total cost for the engine user.
Technical Paper

Performance and Regeneration Characteristics of a Cellular Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1982-02-01
820272
Fundamental aspects of performance and regeneration of a porous ceramic particulate trap are described. Dimensionless correlations are given for pressure drop vs. flow conditions for clean and loaded traps. An empirical relationship between estimated particulate deposits and a loading parameter that distinguishes pressure drop changes due to flow variations from particulate accumulation is presented. Results indicate that trapping efficiencies exceed 90% under most conditions and pressure drop doubles when particulate accumulation occupies only 5% of the available void volume. Regeneration was achieved primarily by throttling the engine intake air. For various combinations of initial loading level, trap inlet temperature and oxygen concentration, it was found that regeneration rate peaked after 45 seconds from initiation.
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