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Journal Article

Meeting the US Heavy-Duty EPA 2010 Standards and Providing Increased Value for the Customer

The paper will discuss the design and development of heavy-duty diesel engines to meet the US EPA 2010 on-highway standards - 0.2 g/HP-hr NOx and 0.01 g/HP-hr particulate matter (PM). In meeting these standards a combination of in-cylinder control and aftertreatment control for both NOx and particulate has been used. For NOx control, a combination of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is used. The SCR catalyst uses copper zeolite to achieve high levels of NOx conversion efficiency with minimal ammonia slip and unparalleled thermal durability. For particulate control, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) with upstream oxidation catalyst (DOC) is used. While the DPF may be actively regenerated when required, it operates predominantly with passive regeneration - enabled by the high NOx levels between the engine and the DPF, associated with high efficiency SCR systems and NO₂ production across the DOC.
Journal Article

Thermodynamic Systems for Tier 2 Bin 2 Diesel Engines

Light duty vehicle emission standards are getting more stringent than ever before as stipulated by US EPA Tier 2 Standards and LEV III regulations proposed by CARB. The research in this paper sponsored by US DoE is focused towards developing a Tier 2 Bin 2 Emissions compliant light duty pickup truck with class leading fuel economy targets of 22.4 mpg “City” / 34.3 mpg “Highway”. Many advanced technologies comprising both engine and after-treatment systems are essential towards accomplishing this goal. The objective of this paper would be to discuss key engine technology enablers that will help in achieving the target emission levels and fuel economy. Several enabling technologies comprising air-handling, fuel system and base engine design requirements will be discussed in this paper highlighting both experimental and analytical evaluations.
Technical Paper

Brake Thermal Efficiency Improvements of a Commercially Based Diesel Engine Modified for Operation on JP 8 Fuel

The majority of commercial diesel engines rely on EGR to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards, creating a potential issue for military applications that use JP-8 as a fuel. EGR components would be susceptible to corrosion from sulfur in JP-8, which can reach levels of 3000 ppm. Starting with a Cummins 2007 ISL 8.9L production engine, modifications to remove EGR and operate on JP-8 fuel are investigated with a key goal of demonstrating 48% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at an emissions level consistent with 1998 EPA standards. The effects of injector cup flow, improved turbo match, increased compression ratio with revised piston bowl geometry, increased cylinder pressure, and revised intake manifold for improved breathing, are all investigated. Testing focused on a single operating point, full load at 1600 RPM. This engine uses a variable geometry turbo and high pressure common rail fuel system, allowing control over air fuel ratio, rail pressure, and start of injection.
Technical Paper

Rapid In Situ Measurement of Fuel Dilution of Oil in a Diesel Engine using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

A technique for rapid in situ measurement of the fuel dilution of oil in a diesel engine is presented. Fuel dilution can occur when advanced in-cylinder fuel injection techniques are employed for the purpose of producing rich exhaust for lean NOx trap catalyst regeneration. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy is used to monitor the oil in a Mercedes 1.7-liter engine operated on a dynamometer platform. A fluorescent dye suitable for use in diesel fuel and oil systems is added to the engine fuel. The LIF spectra are monitored to detect the growth of the dye signal relative to the background oil fluorescence; fuel mass concentration is quantified based on a known sample set. The technique was implemented with fiber optic probes which can be inserted at various points in the engine oil system. A low cost 532-nm laser diode was used for excitation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compression Ignition Heavy Duty Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Fuelled Engine for Low NOx Emissions

A heavy-duty compression ignition engine using EGR and pilot-ignited directly injected natural gas fueling was calibrated for low NOx emissions. A Cummins ISX engine using cooled EGR was fitted with a Westport HPDI™ fuel system and an oxidation catalyst. The base engine hardware was modified to increase EGR rates (up to 40%). The engine, rated at 336 kW (450 hp) and 2236Nm (1650 ft-lbs), was calibrated and tested over steady state and transient test cycles. Steady state testing over the ESC 13-mode test cycle resulted in weighted composite NOx emissions of 0.36 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter emissions of 0.04 g/bhp-hr. Transient testing over the US EPA specified FTP cycle resulted in average NOx emissions of 0.6 g/bhp-hr and PM emissions of 0.03 g/bhp-hr.
Technical Paper

Interaction Between Fuel Additive and Oil Contaminant: (II) Its Impact on Fuel Stability and Filter Plugging Mechanism

Sulfur containing species as well as other polar molecules provide lubricity and thermal stability to diesel fuels. During the refining process to produce low and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels, these components are removed. As a result, fuel additives such as lubricity agents and antioxidant may be added to protect fuel stability and prevent fuel pump wear. Some lubricity additives, such as dimer acids, resulted in fuel filter plugging. The plugging mechanism was related to the capability of aliphatic acids to form agglomeration by interactions with the overbased detergents, delivered into the fuel as oil contaminants. Other sources of acids, derived from thermal degradation, can lead to the same problem. In this study, individual lubricant additives were mixed in the fuel to form single- and dual-component systems. Levels of compatibility and amounts of interaction products were evaluated for individual solutions.
Technical Paper

Sulfur Management of NOx Adsorber Technology for Diesel Light-duty Vehicle and Truck Applications

Sulfur poisoning from engine fuel and lube is one of the most recognizable degradation mechanisms of a NOx adsorber catalyst system for diesel emission reduction. Even with the availability of 15 ppm sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber will be deactivated without an effective sulfur management. Two general pathways are currently being explored for sulfur management: (1) the use of a disposable SOx trap that can be replaced or rejuvenated offline periodically, and (2) the use of diesel fuel injection in the exhaust and high temperature de-sulfation approach to remove the sulfur poisons to recover the NOx trapping efficiency. The major concern of the de-sulfation process is the many prolonged high temperature rich cycles that catalyst will encounter during its useful life. It is shown that NOx adsorber catalyst suffers some loss of its trapping capacity upon high temperature lean-rich exposure.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Noise Due to Deformation- A Case Study

Vehicle noise has reduced over the years due to the customer demand for quieter vehicles. As the background noises such as combustion noise, pumping noise, etc. have reduced, mechanical noises such as gear noise have become prominent and a major cause of customer complaints. Engine timing gear train uses gears for transferring torque to cam and accessory gears. As engines have become quieter by efforts to reduce the combustion noise, as well as, by moving away from mechanical fuel pumps to common rail fuel pumps, the gear train noise has come under increased scrutiny. Gear whine could be a result of multiple factors. Gear profile distortion is one of the factors. Gear torque variation also has a significant effect on gear whine. Operation of the accessory drives such as hydraulic pumps under variable loads and speeds, is one of the major challenges for resolving a gear whine issue in the engine gear train.
Journal Article

Perception of Diesel Engine Gear Rattle Noise

Component sound quality is an important factor in the design of competitive diesel engines. One component noise that causes complaints is the gear rattle that originates in the front-of-engine gear train which drives the fuel pump and other accessories. The rattle is caused by repeated tooth impacts resulting from fluctuations in differential torsional acceleration of the driving gears. These impacts generate a broadband, impulsive noise that is often perceived as annoying. In most previous work, the overall sound quality of diesel engines has been considered without specifically focusing on predicting the perception of gear rattle. Gear rattle level has been quantified based on angular acceleration measurements, but those measurements can be difficult to perform. Here, the emphasis was on developing a metric based on subjective testing of the perception of gear rattle.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Deactivation for Improved System Performance over Transient Real-World Drive Cycles

Effective control of exhaust emissions from modern diesel engines requires the use of aftertreatment systems. Elevated aftertreatment component temperatures are required for engine-out emissions reductions to acceptable tailpipe limits. Maintaining elevated aftertreatment components temperatures is particularly problematic during prolonged low speed, low load operation of the engine (i.e. idle, creep, stop and go traffic), on account of low engine-outlet temperatures during these operating conditions. Conventional techniques to achieve elevated aftertreatment component temperatures include delayed fuel injections and over-squeezing the turbocharger, both of which result in a significant fuel consumption penalty. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been studied as a candidate strategy to maintain favorable aftertreatment temperatures, in a fuel efficient manner, via reduced airflow through the engine.
Technical Paper

Reactor System with Diesel Injection Capability for DOC Evaluations

Plug flow reactors, simulating engine exhaust gas, are widely used in emissions control research to gain insight into the reaction mechanisms and engineering aspects that controls activity, selectivity, and durability of catalyst components. The choice of relevant hydrocarbon (HC) species is one of the most challenging factor in such laboratory studies, given the variety of compositions that can be encountered in different application scenarios. Furthermore, this challenge is amplified by the experimental difficulties related to introducing heavier and multi-component HCs and analyzing the reaction products.
Journal Article

Durability Study of a High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using Lubricity Additive Dosed Gasoline-Like Fuel - Additional Cycle Runtime and Teardown Analysis

This study is a continuation of previous work assessing the robustness of a Cummins XPI common rail injection system operating with gasoline-like fuel. All the hardware from the original study was retained except for the high pressure pump head and check valves which were replaced due to cavitation damage. An additional 400 hour NATO cycle was run on the refurbished fuel system to achieve a total exposure time of 800 hours and detect any other significant failure modes. As in the initial investigation, fuel system parameters including pressures, temperatures and flow rates were logged on a test bench to monitor performance over time. Fuel and lubricant samples were taken every 50 hours to assess fuel consistency, metallic wear, and interaction between fuel and oil. High fidelity driving torque and flow measurements were made to compare overall system performance when operating with both diesel and light distillate fuel.
Technical Paper

Developing Diesel Engines to Meet Ultra-low Emission Standards

The modern diesel engine is used around the world to power applications as diverse as passenger cars, heavy-duty trucks, electrical power generators, ships, locomotives, agricultural and industrial equipment. The success of the diesel engine results from its unique combination of fuel economy, durability, reliability and affordability - which drive the lowest total cost of ownership. The diesel engine has been developed to meet the most demanding on-highway emission standards, through the introduction of advanced technologies such as: electronic controls, high pressure fuel injection, and cooled exhaust gas recirculation. The standards to be introduced in the U.S. in 2007 will see the introduction of the Clean Diesel which will achieve near-zero NOx and particulate emissions, while retaining the customer values outlined above.
Journal Article

Internal Diesel Injector Deposits: Theory and Investigations into Organic and Inorganic Based Deposits

Over the last two decades, global emission regulations have become more stringent and have required the use of more advanced fuel injection systems. This includes the use of tighter tolerances, more rapid injections and internal components actuated by weaker injection forces. Unfortunately, these design features make the entire system more susceptible to fuel contaminants. Over the last six years, the composition of these contaminants has evolved from hard insoluble debris, such as dust and rocks, to soluble chemical contaminants. Recent research by the diesel engine manufacturers, fuel injection equipment suppliers and the fuel and fuel additive industry has discovered a major source of the soluble chemical contaminant that leads to injector deposits to be derived from cost effective and commonly used additives used to protect against pipeline corrosion.