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Technical Paper

Nozzle Flow and Cavitation Modeling with Coupled 1D-3D AVL Software Tools

The paper is devoted to the coupled 1D-3D modeling technology of injector flow and cavitation in diesel injections systems. The technology is based on the 1D simulation of the injector with the AVL software BOOST-HYDSIM and 3D modeling of the nozzle flow with AVL FIRE. The nozzle mesh with spray holes and certain part of the nozzle chamber is created with the FIRE preprocessor. The border between the 1D and 3D simulation regions can be chosen inside the nozzle chamber at any position along the needle shaft. Actual coupling version of both software tools considers only one-dimensional (longitudinal) needle motion. Forthcoming version already includes the two-dimensional motion of the needle. Furthermore, special models for the needle tip contact with the nozzle seat and needle guide contact with the nozzle wall are developed in HYDSIM. The co-simulation technology is applied for different common rail injectors in several projects.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Low Levels of Particulate Matter Exhaust Emissions Using Low-Cost Ionization-Type Smoke Detectors

Traditional smoke opacity measurement, performed on diesel engines during regular emissions inspections, sensitive primarily to larger particles of elemental carbon, is very little sensitive to nanoparticles and to semi-volatile “organic carbon” particles. For this reason, it no longer suffices as a high emitter detection tool for modern vehicles with a particle filter or for advanced low-emissions technology where semi-volatile organic particles are the dominant fraction of particulate matter. This paper investigates the potential of common low-cost ionization type smoke detectors, produced in mass quantities for fire detection in buildings, as a tool to measure particle emissions in vehicular exhaust. Two ionization chambers were used to measure both raw and diluted exhaust of various engines powered by diesel fuel and biofuels under laboratory conditions as well as on the road.
Technical Paper

Concepts for Mechanical Abuse Testing of High-Voltage Batteries

Currently lithium-batteries are the most promising electrical-energy storage technology in fully-electric and hybrid vehicles. A crashworthy battery-design is among the numerous challenges development of electric-vehicles has to face. Besides of safe normal operation, the battery-design shall provide marginal threat to human health and environment in case of mechanical damage. Numerous mechanical abuse-tests were performed to identify load limits and the battery's response to damage. Cost-efficient testing is provided by taking into account that the battery-system's response to abuse might already be observed at a lower integration-level, not requiring testing of the entire pack. The most feasible tests and configurations were compiled and discussed. Adaptions of and additions to existing requirements and test-procedures as defined in standards are pointed out. Critical conditions that can occur during and after testing set new requirements to labs and test-rigs.
Technical Paper

LES Simulation of Direct Injection SI-Engine In-Cylinder Flow

The present paper deals with the application of the LES approach to in-cylinder flow modeling. The main target is to study cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) using 3D-CFD simulation. The engine model is based on a spark-ignited single-cylinder research engine. The results presented in this paper cover the motored regime aiming at analysis of the cycle-resolved local flow properties at the spark plug close to firing top dead center. The results presented in this paper suggest that the LES approach adopted in the present study is working well and that it predicts CCV and that the qualitative trends are in-line with established knowledge of internal combustion engine (ICE) in-cylinder flow. The results are evaluated from a statistical point of view based on calculations of many consecutive cycles (at least 10).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Flow Paths due to Leakages of Flammable Liquids by the SPH Method: Application to Real Engines

One of the most important safety issues for automotive engineering is to avoid any fire due to the ignition of flammable liquids, which may result from leaks. Fire risk is a combination of hot temperature, fast vaporisation and accumulation of vapor in a cavity. In IC engines, potentially flammable liquids are fuel and oil. To guarantee safety, flammable liquids must not come into contact with hot parts of the engine. Consequently, shields are designed to guide the flow path of possible leakages and to take any flammable liquid out of the hot areas. Simulation is a great help to optimize the shape of the shield by investigating a large number of possible leakages rapidly. Recent breakthroughs in numerical methods make it possible to apply simulations to industrial design concepts. The employed approach is based on the Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.
Journal Article

Integrated 1D/2D/3D Simulation of Fuel Injection and Nozzle Cavitation

To promote advanced combustion strategies complying with stringent emission regulations of CI engines, computational models have to accurately predict the injector inner flow and cavitation development in the nozzle. This paper describes a coupled 1D/2D/3D modeling technique for the simulation of fuel flow and nozzle cavitation in diesel injection systems. The new technique comprises 1D fuel flow, 2D multi-body dynamics and 3D modeling of nozzle inner flow using a multi-fluid method. The 1D/2D model of the common rail injector is created with AVL software Boost-Hydsim. The computational mesh including the nozzle sac with spray holes is generated with AVL meshing tool Fame. 3D multi-phase calculations are performed with AVL software FIRE. The co-simulation procedure is controlled by Boost-Hydsim. Initially Hydsim performs a standalone 1D simulation until the needle lift reaches a prescribed tolerance (typically 2 to 5 μm).