Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Journal Article

Artist-Centric New HMI Software Development Workflow: Development of Real-Time 3D Rendering Engine for Reconfigurable Instrument Clusters

2013-04-08
2013-01-0425
Instrument clusters that display all information on a TFT-LCD screen, also known as reconfigurable instrument clusters, have become the new trend in automotive interiors. DENSO mass-produced the world's first reconfigurable instrument cluster in 2008. To satisfy customer requirements, large quantities of resources were required. Coupled with an iterative process due to requirement changes, development costs became very high. Reducing development costs was vital in order to expand the reconfigurable instrument cluster products line. One solution was to use existing human machine interface (HMI) tools. However, most HMI tools are geared toward software developers and not graphic artists. Furthermore, each tool has its own unique method for image and scene creation, creating an ineffective and sometimes difficult environment for artists familiar with industry-leading computer graphics (CG) software to learn and use the tools.
Journal Article

Design of Seat Mounted ECG Sensor System for Vehicle Application

2013-04-08
2013-01-1339
The causes of deaths in traffic accidents are predominantly human factors such as careless or "heedlessness" driving; recently, accidents that are believed to be due to deteriorated physical conditions, such as heart attacks, have been reported. Non-contact electrocardiography (ECG) monitor for continuous ECG detection while driving is needed to reduce a number of fatal accident by human error like this. Recently there are a lot of papers to detect cardiac electricity using capacitance coupling between human body and electrode. This sensor system must be adopted appropriate high input impedance circuit and noise reduction technique as a function of source impedance value especially for a seat mounted sensor.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Engine using New Fuel Injection System - Direct Monitoring of Fuel Injection Pressure using Injector with Built-in Sensor, and its Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1739
Recently, diesel engine manufacturers have been improving the tolerance of fuel injection quantity and timing in response to the strengthening of emissions regulations and the introduction of various kinds of diesel fuels. This paper describes the Intelligent Accuracy Refinement Technology (i-ART) system, which has been developed as a way of achieving substantially improved tolerances. The i-ART system consists of a fuel pressure sensor installed in the injectors. It calculates the injection quantity and timing at high speed using a dedicated microcomputer designed for pressure waveform analysis. As the injector can directly measure the fuel injection pressure waveform for each injection, it can compensate the injection quantity and timing tolerance at any time. Toyota Motor Corporation has introduced this system in Brazilian market vehicles. In Brazil, the PROCONVE L6 emissions regulations will be introduced in 2012, and the market also uses various kinds of diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

Virtual Development of Engine ECU by Modeling Technology

2012-04-16
2012-01-0007
Along with the evolution of vehicle electronic systems from independent control in each domain system to the integration control of the whole vehicle system, ECU systems have become increasingly complicated and large-scale. This has made it extremely difficult to develop the entire system coherently and efficiently from the functional level down to implementation level. On the other hand, the development methodology focusing on single ECU system used today has been facing an additional challenge because of increasingly strict requirements for safety design based on multi-ECU systems. To address these challenges, we have been working on developing virtual development of Engine ECU by modeling technology. In order to achieve optimum electronic systems, it is necessary to build many real devices and evaluate the performance of systems. However, it is also becoming necessary to build virtual devices because of the increasingly complicated and large-scale systems.
Technical Paper

Reliability of SiC-MOSFET for Hybrid Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-0337
This paper describes the reliability of silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET. We clarified the relation between the lifetime of the gate oxide and the crystal defects. We fabricated MOS diodes using thermal oxidation and measured their lifetimes by TDDB (Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown) measurement. The wear-out lifetime is sufficient for hybrid vehicle but many MOS diodes broke in shorter time. The breakdown points were defined by Photo-emission method. Finally, we classified the defects by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). A TSD (Threading Screw Dislocation) plays the most important role in the lifetime degradation of the gate oxide. The lifetime of the gate oxide area, in which a TSD is included, is shorter by two orders of magnitude than a wear-out breakdown. The mechanism by which threading dislocations degrade the gate oxide lifetime was not discovered. To explain the degradation, we assumed two models, the shape effect and the oxide quality degradation.
Technical Paper

Cold Storage Air Conditioning System for Idle Stop Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1287
The number of idle-stop vehicles is rapidly increasing in recent years, and air-conditioning technologies that extend engine stopped time while maintaining the cabin comfort are required. When the engine stops during idle- stop mode, the air conditioner also stops functioning. To maintain cabin comfort, the engine is restarted to work the air-conditioning cycle, which reduces the fuel saving effects. As a countermeasure, a cold storage air conditioning system has been proposed. The system extends engine non-operation time by using cold storage for generating cool air while the engine is stopped. We have integrated this technology into an evaporator, which is used in the air-conditioning cycle, and the system has a short cold storage period and a necessary cold release period. This report describes its concept and effects.
Journal Article

Capacitive Humidity Sensors Using Highly Durable Polyimide Membrane

2013-04-08
2013-01-1337
Humidity sensors used in automatic windshield defogging controls contribute to the improvement of fuel consumption. The optimum control of air conditioning systems can be realized by adding humidity information to conventional systems which have used only temperature information. While resistive humidity sensors have been widely used, their sensing range and responsiveness are observed as issues. Resistive sensors cannot function at a humidity range of around 100% RH as well as at a low temperature range, and have a low response rate to sudden changes in humidity. It is considered that resistive humidity sensors will be replaced with capacitive ones which have a wide sensing range and high responsiveness.
Technical Paper

Artist-Centric HMI Software Development Tool for Reconfigurable Instrument Clusters: Integration with Model-Based Development Tool

2015-04-14
2015-01-0169
Instrument clusters that display all information on a TFT-LCD screen, also known as reconfigurable instrument clusters, have become the new trend in automotive interiors. DENSO mass-produced the world's first reconfigurable instrument cluster in 2008. To satisfy customer requirements, large quantities of resources were required. Coupled with an iterative process due to requirement changes, development costs became very high. Reducing development costs was vital in order to expand the reconfigurable instrument cluster product line. A new artist-centric HMI (human machine interface) software development workflow is proposed to reduce the development effort by introducing a data converter and real-time 3D rendering engine in our earlier paper. Our goal is to realize an environment with little programming during development by utilizing a tool chain to automate the majority of the programmer's tasks.
Technical Paper

Development of Sintered Bearing Material with Higher Corrosion Resistance for Fuel Pumps

2007-04-16
2007-01-0415
In recent years, due to a growing demand for improvement in the performance and reliability of automotive fuel pumps and the advancement of globalization, automotive fuel pumps are being used with inferior gasolines that include more sulfur, organic acids or compounds, compared to gasolines used in general regions. Conventionally, bearings in these fuel pumps have mainly been made of sintered bronze alloy. With this bronze alloy, however, it is difficult to achieve a significant improvement in the tribology characteristics of bearings, in order to meet the demands for performance improvement, etc., and corrosion is severe in inferior gasolines that contain highly-concentrated organic acids or sulfur and the corrosion products that accompany them. Therefore, in order to obtain fine tribology characteristics and superior corrosion resistance in gasolines with highly-concentrated organic acids and sulfur, various copper-based alloys were studied using the powder metallurgy process.
Technical Paper

Cam and Crank Rotation Sensor with Reverse Rotation Detection

2006-04-03
2006-01-1460
In order to improve the performance of Engine Management System (EMS), it becomes more important to accurately detect the position of cam and crank with rotation sensors, usually as referred cam and crank sensor. In addition, expectations for the idle stop system to follow the reinforcement of emission regulations require cam and crank sensors to implement the function of reverse rotation detection. This paper discusses our development of a new generation rotation sensor (MR3) that uses AMR (Anisotropic Magneto Resistance) for accurate rotation detection to meet all system and market demands with minimum number of components to achieve high quality but less expensive price.
Technical Paper

Advanced Electronics for a Clean Diesel Engine Management System

2006-10-16
2006-21-0059
With the economic development of countries around the world led by BRICs(Brazil, Russia, India, China), the total number of automobiles in the world continues to rise. From the standpoint of preserving limited petroleum resources and reducing CO2 emissions, improved fuel consumption is necessary if we are to continue enjoying the use of automobiles. In Europe, significant development of diesel engine technology as a power source for automobiles has taken place to reduce fuel consumption and to enhance the “Fun to Drive” experience, and market share of diesel engines has increased in this area. However, with increasing environmental awareness worldwide, all areas of the globe are seeing tightened regulations for not only fuel consumption, but also exhaust emissions, including those for PM(Particulate Matter) and NOx. Of these regulations, the requirement for vehicles to satisfy the US Tier 2 Bin 5 rating, regardless of whether they are gasoline or dieselpowered, is the most stringent.
Technical Paper

Ignition Simulation and Visualization for Spark Plug Electrode Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-0940
An ignition simulation and an ignition visualization method that analyze effects of spark plug electrode design have been developed. In the ignition simulation, a programmed heat source corresponds to the discharge energy in the spark gap, and the flame-kernel generation and flame propagation are calculated on the heat balance in the gap, in consideration of thermal transmission to the electrodes. The results by this simulation indicate that high ignitability of fine ground electrode spark plugs is because the miniaturization of the ground electrode reduces the heat loss, and flame growth is thus less disturbed by the loss. The ignition visualization includes taking Schlieren images by laser light to capture flame kernels with weaker luminescence intensity compared to ignition discharge spark luminescence. This visualization enables the observation of the influence of the shape of spark plug electrodes on flame growth.
Technical Paper

Reliability Analysis of Adhesive for PBT-Epoxy Interface

2007-04-16
2007-01-1517
PBT (polybutylene terephthalate) and epoxy adhesive, which both have superior heat resistance and environmental resistance, are a representative combination now being applied to many parts. Generally, PBT is annealed after molding at a temperature above the glass transition temperature to ensure dimensional stability when in use. But in this case, this process decreases the adhesive strength between PBT and epoxy. This study analyzes the adhesion degradation mechanism in this system and a countermeasure technology is proposed. Regarding this PBT-epoxy adhesion degradation mechanism, focus is placed on changes in the fracture surface, which is analyzed before and after annealing. From this analysis it becomes clear that generation of a WBL (weak boundary layer) is caused by non-crystallization and a migration of the PBT functional group on the adhesion surface layer.
Technical Paper

Hexagonal Cell Ceramic Substrates for Lower Emission and Backpressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0805
Stringent emission regulations call for advanced catalyst substrates with thinner walls and higher cell density. However, substrates with higher cell density increase backpressure, thinner cell wall substrates have lower mechanical characteristics. Therefore we will focus on cell configurations that will show a positive effect on backpressure and emission performance. We found that hexagonal cells have a greater effect on emission and backpressure performance versus square or round cell configurations. This paper will describe in detail the advantage of hexagonal cell configuration versus round or square configurations with respect to the following features: 1 High Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC) performance due to uniformity of the catalyst coating layer 2 Low backpressure due to the large hydraulic diameter of the catalyst cell 3 Quick light off characteristics due to efficient heat transfer and low thermal mass
Journal Article

Study of Stress Measurements Technique for Internal Electrical Connection of Printed Circuit Boards using Synchrotron Radiation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0697
Measurements of residual stress in a printed circuit board, which consists of copper foil, silver alloy and thermo plastic resin, were conducted under a thermal cycle. The printed circuit board was given a ten-layer repeat of prepreg and made by thermocompression bonding. Experiments suggested the possibility of measuring surface residual stress of copper circuits and the internal residual stress of metallic connections by synchrotron radiation of Spring-8. FEM analysis of the printed circuit board during a thermal cycle was conducted, and the result was adjusted to X-ray stress using absorption correction. X-ray stress during a heat-cycle obtained by synchrotron radiation showed good agreement with stress calculated by FEM analysis.
Journal Article

Ventilation Characteristics of Modeled Compact Car Part 2 Estimation of Local Ventilation Efficiency and Inhaled Air Quality

2008-04-14
2008-01-0731
In order to evaluate the ventilation characteristics of car interior, a model experiment was performed. Part 1 deals with the air flow properties in a half-scale car model. In this paper, a trace gas experimental method equipped with Flame Ionization Detector (FID) systems is introduced to examine the local ventilation efficiency and inhaled air quality in the car, which was ventilated at a flow rate of 100 m3/h and kept in an isothermal environment of 28°C in the experiment. Here, ventilation efficiency was evaluated by means of the Scales for Ventilation Efficiencies (SVEs), and inhaled air quality in terms of the influences of passive smoke and foot odor was evaluated by means of the Contribution Ratio of Pollution source 1 (CRP1). Therefore, calculation methods using trace gas concentration values were suggested for these indices, which were proposed based on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique.
Journal Article

Ejector-Type Cool Box

2008-04-14
2008-01-0734
Ejector Cycle® development has been under way to improve refrigeration cycle performance and increase its efficiency in light of global environmental conservation. Ejector Cycle® can be applied to cool boxes that cool drinks using the refrigeration cycle of the vehicle air-conditioning system. We commenced deliberating Ejector Cycle® application to improve cool box system performance. Difficulties associated with the cool box include the decline in cabin air-conditioning performance due to simultaneous operation of the cabin air conditioning and cool box. We have solved this problem by using an ejector to achieve continuous operation with two evaporator temperatures in the same system. Furthermore, we have configured the cycle to be suitable for vehicle air-conditioning systems, designed a high-efficiency two-stage variable ejector, and addressed various system problems.
Journal Article

Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator

2009-04-20
2009-01-0973
The development of energy-saving technologies is in great demand recently to stop global warming. We are committed to developing the Ejector Cycle as an energy-saving technology for refrigerating air conditioners. The ejector, which is an energy-saving technological innovation, improves the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle by effectively using the expansion energy that is lost in the conventional steam-compression cycle, and is applicable to almost all steam-compression refrigerating air conditioners, thus improving the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. Concerning the application of the Ejector Cycle in truck-transport refrigerators, we previously released Ejector Cycle products for large and medium-size freezer trucks, which have been favorably accepted by custom-ers.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Expert Driver’s Braking Behavior and Its Application to an Automatic Braking System

2009-04-20
2009-01-0785
Deceleration patterns of an expert driver will be formulated using the perceptual risk index for approach and proximity of a preceding vehicle as an example of comfortable braking pattern. It will be shown that the formulated braking pattern can generate smooth deceleration profile uniformly for many conditions of approaching conditions. In addition, brake initiation timing of expert driver will be successfully formulated using the alternative index. Finally, an automatic braking system will be proposed based on the formulated brake initiation model and the velocity profile. Twenty five expert drivers experienced the automatic braking installed in an experimental car. It will be shown that the proposed system can generate smooth profile and realize secure brake patterns based on subjective evaluation.
Technical Paper

Development of Laser Radar Cruise Control System

1998-10-19
98C003
The adaptive cruise control (ACC) system reduces the workload of the driver. Lower cost and more precise control are the keys to successfully creating a market with the ACC system. A system that eliminates unexpected acceleration or deceleration caused by incorrect judgment is in high demand. From 1997, the laser radar ACC system has been produced for the domestic version of the Lexus LS400. It provides high recognition capability with a two-dimensional scanning system at an affordable price. Th millimeter wave radar ACC system can perform with better recognition capability, but is quite expensive. While many companies are developing millimeter wave radar ACC systems, we think our laser radar ACC system is superior.
X