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Video

Maturity Level and Variant Validation of Mechatronic Systems in Commercial Vehicles

2011-12-05
Driver assistance systems (e.g. the emergency brake assist Active Brake Assist2, or ABA2 for short, in the Mercedes-Benz Actros) are becoming increasingly common in heavy-duty commercial vehicles. Due to the close interconnection with drivetrain and suspension control systems, the integration and validation of the functions make the most exacting demands on processes and tools involved in mechatronics development. Presenter Thomas Bardelang, Daimler AG
Video

Challenges in Automotive Electrification and Powertrain Component Development

2011-11-07
An overview of Daimler?s progression to advance powertrain technology in a growth industry shows many different solutions to improvement in transportation. Daimler continues to make breakthroughs in technology development and application building on 125 years of automotive development. Optimization of current powertrains will enable a significant gain in CO2/mi reductions, that dependent on product mix can be augmented with additional technologies. There is however no bypass to some form of electrification, enabling efficiency gains and alternative forms of power supply. Development of hybrid powertrains continues in an established manner and enhanced development of further electrified powertrains are in development. Organizationally and technically, significant skills and adjustments need to continue to be undertaken enabling OEMs and in particular the supply base to develop optimized solutions efficiently. The outlook is bright for novel component development and innovation.
Technical Paper

Virtual Transfer Path Analysis at Daimler Trucks

2009-05-19
2009-01-2243
As for passenger cars, the overall noise and vibration comfort in commercial trucks and busses becomes an increasingly important sales argument. In order to effectively reduce the noise and vibration levels it is required to identify possible NVH issues at an early stage in the vehicle development process. For this reason a so-called “Virtual Transfer Path Analysis” (VTPA) method has been implemented which combines the results obtained from the conventional multi-body simulation and finite element method approaches. The resulting VTPA tool enables Daimler Trucks to systematically investigate and predict the complex interaction between powertrain excitation and the resulting vehicle response well before hardware prototypes become available. An overview of the theory is presented as well as the practical application and outcome of the technique applied in a past product development.
Technical Paper

Using Simulation to Verify Diagnosis Algorithms of Electronic Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-1043
In modern vehicles the architecture of electronics is growing more and more complex because both the number of electronic functions – e.g. implemented as software modules – as well as the level of networking between electronic control units (ECUs) is steadily increasing. This complexity leads to greater propagation of failure symptoms, and diagnosing the causes of failure becomes a new challenge. Diagnostics aims at detecting failures such as defect sensors or faulty communication messages. It is subdivided into diagnosis algorithms on an ECU and algorithms running offboard, e.g. on a diagnostic tester. These algorithms have to complement each other in the best possible way. While in the past the diagnosis algorithm was developed late in the development process, nowadays there are efforts to start the development of such algorithms earlier – at least in parallel to developing a new feature itself. This would allow developers to verify the diagnosis algorithms in early design stages.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Automated Report Generation and Data Acquisition Tools to Guide Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet Operations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0462
Daimler is an industry leader in the development and deployment of fuel cell vehicles. With more than 100 fuel cell vehicles being driven worldwide at locations including the U.S., Singapore, Japan, Europe, China, and Australia, Daimler currently operates the world's largest fuel cell vehicle fleet. Each fuel cell vehicle is equipped with a powerful telematics system that records a diverse set of vehicle operation and fuel cell specific data for development purposes. Through innovative analysis methods Daimler is gaining unique insight into the technical, environmental, societal, and logistic influences impacting the future of fuel cell vehicle technology.
Journal Article

Fire Fighting of Li-Ion Traction Batteries

2013-04-08
2013-01-0213
The number of full electric and hybrid electric vehicles is rapidly growing [1][2][3]. The new technologies accompanying this trend are increasingly becoming a focal point of interest for rescue services. There is much uncertainty about the right techniques to free trapped occupants after an accident. The same applies to vehicle fires. Can car fires involving vehicles with a lithium ion traction battery be handled in the same way as conventional vehicle fires? Is water the right extinguishing agent? Is there a risk of explosion? There are many unanswered questions surrounding the topic of electric vehicle safety. The lack of information is a breeding ground for rumours, misinformation and superficial knowledge. Discussions on various internet platforms further this trend. Tests were conducted on three lithium ion traction batteries, which were fuel-fired until burning on their own. The batteries were then extinguished with water, a surfactant and a gelling agent.
Technical Paper

Development of Universal Brake Test Data Exchange Format and Evaluation Standard

2010-10-10
2010-01-1698
Brake system development and testing is spread over vehicle manufacturers, system and component suppliers. Test equipment from different sources, even resulting from different technology generations, different data analysis and report tools - comprising different and sometimes undocumented algorithms - lead to a difficult exchange and analysis of test results and, at the same time, contributes to unwanted test variability. Other studies regarding the test variability brought up that only a unified and unambiguous data format will allow a meaningful and comparative evaluation of these data and only standardization will reveal the actual reasons of test variability. The text at hand illustrates that a substantial part of test variability is caused by a misinterpretation of data and/or by the application of different algorithms.
Technical Paper

Development of Energy Management Strategies and Analysis with Standard Drive Cycles for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

2012-09-10
2012-01-1609
In order to reduce fuel consumption in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, effective distribution of power demand between Fuel Cell and Battery is required. Energy management strategies can improve fuel economy by meeting power demand efficiently. This paper explains development of various energy management strategies for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle with Lithium Ion Battery. Drive cycles used for optimization and analysis of the strategies are New European Drive cycles (NEDC), Japanese Drive cycles (JAP1015), City Drive cycles, Highway Drive cycles (FHDS) and Federal Urban Drive cycles (FUDS). All Fuel consumption and ageing calculations are done using backward model implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Technical Paper

Standardization of Wiring Harness Data Formats between Truck OEMs and Suppliers

2011-09-13
2011-01-2270
The continuously integration of electrics and electronics (EE) in the last decades is one of the main key drivers for innovation and business success of the Automotive OEMs. This is also applicable for truck manufacturers. On the other side factors like the rising vehicle complexity, number of variants and the warranty costs for EE issues are increasing the pressure on the engineering teams responsible for the mechatronic systems. To address these issues one of the key activities in the European market (focus on Germany) during the last decade was to introduce industry-wide standards for the data transfer of wiring harness data between OEM and harness supplier. In this paper the benefits and technical background of using the standards KBL and KOMP formats within the MB-Trucks brand will be presented. Moreover the role of the Information Technology (IT) will be explained in detail.
Technical Paper

Maturity Level and Variant Validation of Mechatronic Systems in Commercial Vehicles

2011-09-13
2011-01-2263
Driver assistance systems (e.g. the emergency brake assist Active Brake Assist2, or ABA2 for short, in the Mercedes-Benz Actros) are becoming increasingly common in heavy-duty commercial vehicles. Due to the close interconnection with drivetrain and suspension control systems, the integration and validation of the functions make the most exacting demands on processes and tools involved in mechatronics development. In addition to a multi-stage test process focusing on the functions of the driver assistance systems (software), the “electrical” aspects (hardware) also form part of holistic maturity level validation. The test process is supported by state-of-the-art, high-performance tools (e.g. automatable component test benches and overall vehicle HiL systems) which, in particular, allow quick and accurate configuration in line with different vehicle variants.
Technical Paper

Development of a LIF-Imaging System for Simultaneous High-Speed Visualization of Liquid Fuel and Oil Films in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0634
Downsizing and direct injection in modern DISI engines can lead to fuel impinging on the cylinder walls. The interaction of liquid fuel and engine oil due to fuel impinging on the cylinder wall causes problems in both lubrication and combustion. To analyze this issue with temporal and spatial resolution, we developed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system for simultaneous kHz-rate imaging of fuel and oil films on the cylinder wall. Engine oil was doped with traces of the laser dye pyrromethene 567, which fluoresces red after excitation by 532 nm laser radiation. Simultaneously, the liquid fuel was visualized by UV fluorescence of an aromatic “tracer” in a non-fluorescent surrogate fuel excited at 266 nm. Two combinations of fuel and tracer were investigated, iso-octane and toluene as well as a multi-component surrogate and anisole. The fluorescence from oil and fuel was spectrally separated and detected by two cameras.
Technical Paper

The Truck of the Future: Autonomous and Connected Driving at Daimler Trucks

2017-05-10
2017-01-1931
Due to the continuous increasing highway transport and the decreasing investments into infrastructure a better usage of the installed infrastructure is indispensable. Therefore the operation and interoperation of assistance and telematics systems become more and more necessary. Regarding these facts Highway Pilot was developed at Daimler Trucks. The Highway Pilot System moves the truck highly automated and independent from other road users within the allowed speed range and the required security distance. Daimler Trucks owns diverse permissions in Germany and the USA for testing these technologies on public roads. Next generation is the Highway Pilot Connect System that connects three highly automated driving trucks. The connection is established via Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication (V2V).
Technical Paper

Using Timing Analysis for Evaluating Communication Behavior and Network Topologies in an Early Design Phase of Automotive Electric/Electronic Architectures

2009-04-20
2009-01-1379
The increasing functionality and complexity of future electric/electronic architectures requires efficient methods and tools to support design decisions, which are taken in early development phases 6. For the past four years, a holistic approach for architecture development has been established at Mercedes-Benz Cars R&D department. At its core is a seamless design flow, including the conception, the analysis and the documentation for electric/electronic architectures. One of the actual challenges in the design of electric/electronic architectures concerns communication behavior and network topologies. The increasing data exchange between the ECUs creates high requirements for the networks. With the introduction of FlexRay 21 and Ethernet the automotive network architecture become a lot more heterogeneous. Especially gateways must fulfill many new requirements to handle the strict periodic schedule of FlexRay and the partly event-triggered communication on CAN-busses 23.
Technical Paper

Bluetec Emission Control System for the US Tier 2 Bin 5 Legislation

2008-04-14
2008-01-1184
While the market share for diesel engines for LD vehicles in Europe has grown continuously in the past years, the market share in North America is still negligible. Until now, it has been possible to fulfill the limits for nitrogen oxides (NOx) both in Europe and in North America by engine measures alone, without using an active NOx aftertreatment system. With the introduction of Tier II Bin 8 and Tier II Bin 5 emissions legislation in the US in 2007, most new diesel applications will now require NOx aftertreatment. One of the possible technologies for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in lean exhaust gas is the NOx storage catalyst which has become the generally-accepted choice for engines with gasoline direct injection systems and which is also utilized in the current diesel Bluetec I systems from Daimler. For heavier applications urea-SCR is the preferred technology to fulfill NOx legislation limits.
Technical Paper

Standards for Electric/Electronic Components and Architectures

2008-10-20
2008-21-0022
To fulfil the increasing requirements of electric/electronic architectures in automotive environments new concepts for future Electronic Control Units (ECU) are needed. Novel architectures offer much higher potential in terms of performance compared to higher clock rates in standard microcontroller devices. The following contribution discusses the performance benefits of new concepts as well as advantages in early development phases. We focus on two systems: A central body controller and a gateway system. Both are realized on reconfigurable hardware. In comparison to microcontrollers the FPGA technology offers the opportunity of task parallelization and partial dynamically reconfiguration. These novel architectures demand new tool flows and standards which will be also addressed in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Methodology to Compute Temperatures of a Rotating Cardan Shaft

2013-04-08
2013-01-0843
In this paper a new numerical methodology to compute component temperatures of a rotating cardan shaft is described. In general temperatures of the cardan shaft are mainly dominated by radiation from the exhaust gas system and air temperatures in the transmission tunnel and underbody. While driving the cardan shaft is rotating. This yields a uniform temperature distribution of the circumference of the shaft. However most simulation approaches for heat protection are nowadays steady-state computations. In these simulations the rotation of the cardan shaft is not considered. In particular next to the exhaust gas system the distribution of the temperatures of the cardan shaft is not uniform but shows hot temperatures due to radiation at the side facing the exhaust gas system and lower temperatures at the other side. This paper describes a new computational approach that is averaging the radiative and convective heat fluxes circumferentially over bands of the cardan shaft.
Technical Paper

Daimler Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel: 5 Years of Operational Experience and Recent Improvements

2018-09-24
2018-01-5038
Since 2013 the new Daimler Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT) is in operation at the Mercedes-Benz Technology Center in Sindelfingen, Germany. This construction was the second stage of a wind tunnel center project, which was launched in 2007 and started with the climatic wind tunnels including workshop and office areas. The AAWT features a test facility for full-scale cars and vans with a nozzle exit area of 28 m2, a five-belt system, and underfloor balance to measure forces with best possible road simulation. With a remarkable low background noise level of the wind tunnel, vehicle acoustics can be investigated under excellent conditions using high-performance measurement systems. An overview is given about the building and the design features of the wind tunnel layout. The aerodynamic and aeroacoustic properties are summarized. During the first years of operation, further improvements regarding the wind tunnel background noise and vehicle handling were made.
Journal Article

Cold Start Effect Phenomena over Zeolite SCR Catalysts for Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

2013-04-08
2013-01-1064
NH₃/urea SCR is a very effective and widely used technology for the abatement of NOx from diesel exhaust. The SCR mechanism is well understood and the catalyst behavior can be predicted by mathematical models - as long as operation above the temperature limit for AdBlue® injection is considered. The behavior below this level is less understood. During the first seconds up to minutes after cold start, complete NOx abatement can be observed over an SCR catalyst in test bench experiments, together with a significant increase in temperature after the converter (ca. 100 K). In this work these effects have been investigated over a monolith Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst. Concentration step experiments varying NO, NO₂ and H₂O have been carried out in lab scale, starting from room temperature. Further, the interaction of C₃H₆ and CO with NOx over the SCR has been investigated.
Journal Article

Tire Mark Analysis of a Modern Passenger Vehicle with Respect to Tire Variation, Tire Pressure and Chassis Control Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-0100
Tire mark analysis is an important factor in accident reconstruction. A precise determination of pre- and postcrash speeds as well as longitudinal and lateral accelerations from tire marks contributes significantly to a reliable accident reconstruction. Continuous advancements in tire and vehicle technology – in particular with respect to modern control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABS) – raises the question what role tire marks play in accident reconstruction today. Moreover, this accompanies the question to what extent potential interventions by vehicle control systems such as the electronic stability program (ESP®) resp. the electronic stability control (ESC) can be identified in a tire mark. The widespread use of these systems today makes them increasingly important in accident reconstruction.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulation of DOC+DPF+SCR systems:DOC Influence on SCR Performance

2008-04-14
2008-01-0867
A numerical model for a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is presented. It is based on a spatially 1D, physical and chemically based modeling of the relevant processes within the catalytic monolith. A global reaction kinetic approach has been chosen to describe the chemical reactions. Water condensation and evaporation was also considered, in order to predict the cold start behavior. Reaction kinetic parameters have been evaluated from a series of laboratory experiments. A correlation between the kinetic parameters and the noble metal loading was developed. The model was used in combination with a SCR-Model to study the influence of changes of noble metal loading and DOC volume on the overall transient NOx performance of a DOC+DPF+SCR system.
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