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Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Liquid Fuel Spray and Combustion with Gradually Varying Grid

In this work, large eddy simulation (LES) with a K-equation subgrid turbulent kinetic energy model is implemented into the CFD code KIVA3V to study the features of liquid fuel spray and combustion using gradually varying grid in a constant volume chamber. The characteristic time-scale combustion model (CTC) incorporating a turbulent timescale is adopted to predict the combustion process and the SHELL auto-ignition model is used to predict auto-ignition. Combustion is also simulated using Parallel Detailed Chemistry with Lu's n-heptane reduced mechanism (58 species), which has been added into the KIVA3V-LES code. The computational results are compared with Sandia experimental data for non-reacting and reacting cases. As a result, LES can capture the complex structure of the spray and temperature distribution as well as the trend of ignition delay and flame lift-off length variations. Better results are obtained using the Parallel Detailed Chemistry than the CTC model.
Technical Paper

Influences of subgrid turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dispersion on the characteristics of fuel spray

A large eddy simulation approach and different breakup models are used to analyze fuel injection and atomization processes in a constant volume combustion bomb. The study is focused on the influences of the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy, especially the source term induced by the fuel spray, on the droplet movement and spray characteristics. Furthermore, the influence of different subgrid scale (SGS) models, including the constant coefficient and dynamic Smagorinsky models, WALE model and the K-equation turbulent energy transport model, on fuel sprays and the turbulent dispersion of droplets are examined. Factors affecting the fuel spray are discussed based on numerical computations for various operating conditions and are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Study of Performance Development and Optimization of 6106 Diesel Engine

Working process of diesel engine refers to airflow, turbocharger, fuel injection, combustion, heat transfer and chemical reaction powers etc. Hence, it influences power output, fuel consumption, combustion noise and emissions, moreover directly influences reliability and durability of diesel engine. The working process of 6106 diesel engine is simulated by large universal internal combustion engine working process numerical simulation software GT-Power in this paper, and the effects of compression ratio, fuel supply advance angle and valve timing system on performance of diesel engine are analyzed. When valve-timing system is studied, the influence of intake valve close timing, exhaust valve open timing and valve overlap angle on performance are analyzed. On different operating conditions, the different timing of intake close and exhaust open, valve overlap were computed and analyzed. Finally, at different engine conditions, various optimum results were obtained.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Turbulent Two-Phase Flow in a Porous Media Combustion Chamber

To understand the working mechanism of the porous medium (PM) internal combustion engine, effects of a porous medium heat regenerator inserted into a combustion chamber on the turbulent flow field and fuel-air mixture formation are studied by numerical simulation. The cylindrical chamber has a constant volume, in which a disk-shaped PM insert is fixed. A simplified model for the random structure of the PM is presented, in which the PM is represented by an assembly of a great number of randomly distributed solid units. To simulate flows in the PM a Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy's equation is introduced into the numerical solver. A version of two-equation k - ε turbulence model suggested by Antohe and Lage is employed for the turbulence prediction in the PM. A spray model, in which the effects of drop breakup, collision and coalescence are taken into account, is introduced to describe spray/wall interactions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Characteristics of Conical Spray and Combustion for Medium Speed D.I. Diesel Engine

This paper inverstigates a new way of conical spray for medium speed D. I. diesel engine, with which three different construction injectors were used. The feature of conical spray and fuel-air mixture formation were observed by means of schlieren photograph technique. The main result is that the cone top angle of conical injector has influence on formation of fuel-air mixture and performance of engine. The results of test on a single-cylinder engine show the premixed combustion phase was possessed of a large proportions of the whole combustion period, which was become a leading feature. The increasing interest in study of diesel engine combustion is caused by achieving even more stringent emission standards and greatly improving the fuel economy. From present status of this research the traditional combustion system which with orifice nozzel has already exposed some inherent drawbacks.
Technical Paper

Research on the Characteristics of Enrichment Fuel Injection Process in the Pre-Chamber of a Marine Gas Engine

Fuel injection and fuel-air mixture formation processes have significant influence on the performance of spark ignition gas engines. In order to study the fuel enrichment injection process in the pre-chamber of a marine gas engine, the flow field in the pre-chamber during the gas fuel injection period was investigated by the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. An organic glass model of pre-chamber was made for optical measurement. The flow fields in the pre-chamber with four different gas injection angles were analyzed, respectively. The measurement results were qualitatively compared to the CFD calculation results as the verification of the calculation. Based on the comparison of the PIV experiment results, an optimal gas fuel injection angle was chosen. Furthermore, 3D CFD calculation models with the baseline and optimal fuel injection angles of a marine spark ignited natural gas engine were generated to calculate the working process.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Potential of Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) Coupled with Double Diesel Direct-Injection Strategy for Meeting High Fuel Efficiency with Ultra-Low Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Engine at High Load

The potential of diesel/gasoline RCCI combustion coupled with late intake valve closing (LIVC) and double direct injection of diesel for meeting high fuel efficiency with ultra-low emissions was investigated in this study. The study was aiming at high load operation in a heavy-duty diesel engine. Based on the reactivity stratification of RCCI combustion, the employment of double injection of diesel fuel provided concentration stratification of the high-reactivity fuel, which is to further realize effective control of the combustion process. Meanwhile, late intake valve closing (LIVC) strategy is introduced to control the maximum in-cylinder pressure and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Control of Ignition Timing and Combustion Phase by Means of Injection Strategy for Jet-Controlled Compression Ignition Mode in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

Controllability of ignition timing and combustion phase by means of dual-fuel direct injection strategy in jet-controlled compression ignition mode were investigated in a light-duty prototype diesel engine. Blended fuel with lower reactivity was delivered in the early period of compression stroke to form the premixed charge, while diesel fuel which has higher reactivity was injected near TDC to trigger the ignition. The effects of several important injection parameters including pre-injection timing, jet-injection timing, pre- injection pressure and ratio of pre-injection in the total heat value of injected fuel were discussed. Numerical Simulation by using CFD software was also conducted under similar operating conditions. The experimental results indicate that the jet-injection timing shows robust controllability on the start of combustion under all the engine load conditions.
Technical Paper

Droplet Behaviors of DI Gasoline Wall Impinging Spray by Spray Slicer

Owing to the small size of engines and high injection pressures, it is difficult to avoid the fuel spray impingement on the combustion cylinder wall and piston head in Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine, which is a possible source of hydrocarbons and soot emission. As a result, the droplets size and distribution are significantly important to evaluate the atomization and predict the impingement behaviors, such as stick, spread or splash. However, the microscopic behaviors of droplets are seldom reported due to the high density of small droplets, especially under high pressure conditions. In order to solve this problem, a “spray slicer” was designed to cut the spray before impingement as a sheet one to observe the droplets clearly. The experiment was performed in a constant volume chamber under non-evaporation condition, and a mini-sac injector with single hole was used.