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Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction on Spray Combustion: A Large Eddy Simulation Study

Although turbulence plays a critical role in engines operated within low temperature combustion (LTC) regime, its interaction with chemistry on auto-ignition at low-ambient-temperature and lean-oxygen conditions remains inadequately understood. Therefore, it is worthwhile taking turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) into consideration in LTC engine simulation by employing advanced combustion models. In the present study, large eddy simulation (LES) coupled with linear eddy model (LEM) is performed to simulate the ignition process in n-heptane spray under engine-relevant conditions, known as Spray H. With LES, more details about unsteady spray flame could be captured compared to Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). With LEM approach, both scalar fluctuation and turbulent mixing on sub-grid level are captured, accounting for the TCI. A skeletal mechanism is adopted in this numerical simulation, including 41 species and 124 reactions.
Technical Paper

Selection of Swirl Ratio in Diesel Engines Based on Droplet Trajectory Analysis

Matching fuel injection and airflow motion is critical for the optimization of fuel-air mixing and combustion process in diesel engines. In this study, the effects of swirl flow on liquid droplet motion and the selection of swirl ratio, which are known as the major concern in organizing airflow motion, were investigated based on theoretical analysis of droplet trajectories. The evaporating droplets with various initial conditions are assumed to be transported in a solid-body-like swirl field, and their trajectories were derived based on force analysis. To evaluate fuel-air mixing quality, a new parameter with respect to fuel vapor distribution was proposed. Based on this methodology, the effects of swirl velocity, droplet size, as well as liquid-gas density ratio on droplet trajectory were discussed under diesel-engine-like boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and Injection Strategies on the Performance and Emissions of a Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine

Clean combustion is critical for marine engines to meet the Tier III emission regulation. In this paper, the effects of EGR and injection strategies (including injection pressure, injection timing as well as multiple injection technology) on the performance and emissions of a 2-stroke, low speed marine diesel engine were investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to reach the IMO Tier III NOx emissions target and reduce the fuel consumption rate. Due to the large length scale of the marine engine, RANS simulation was performed in combination with the CTC-SHELL combustion model. Based on the simulation model, the variation of the cylinder pressure curve, the average temperature in the cylinder, the combustion heat release rate and the emission characteristics were studied.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Intake Flow of a Four-Valve Diesel Engine

The intake process plays an important role in the operation of internal combustion engines. In the present study, a three-dimensional transient simulation of a four-valve diesel engine was performed using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model based on software CONVERGE. The mean velocity components in three directions through the intake valve curtain, the flow separation around the intake valves, the influences of inlet jet on turbulence flow field and cycle-to-cycle variation were investigated in this work. The result shows that the mean velocity distributes non-uniformly near the valve curtain at high valve lifts. In contrast, the mean velocity distribution is uniform at low valve lifts. It is found that the flow separation occurs at valve stem, valve seat and valve sealing through the outlet of the helical port. In contrast, flow separation is only observed in the valve seat through the outlet of the tangential port.