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Technical Paper

Development of a Low-Noise High Pressure Fuel Pump for GDi Engine Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-0253
Fuel systems associated with Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) engines operate at pressures significantly higher than Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engine fuel systems. Because of these higher pressures, GDi fuel systems require a high pressure fuel pump in addition to the conventional fuel tank lift pump. Such pumps deliver fuel at high pressure to the injectors multiple times per engine cycle. With this extra hardware and repetitive pressurization events, vehicles equipped with GDi fuel systems typically emit higher levels of audible noise than those equipped with PFI fuel systems. A common technique employed to cope with pump noise is to cover or encase the pump in an acoustic insulator, however this method does not address the root causes of the noise. To contend with the consumer complaint of GDi system noise, Delphi and Magneti Marelli have jointly developed a high pressure fuel pump with reduced audible output by concentrating on sources of noise generation within the pump itself.
Technical Paper

Beyond Euro VI - Development of A Next Generation Fuel Injector for Commercial Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1435
Delphi Diesel Systems (DDS) - Heavy Duty Business is developing a new range of Ultra High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injectors with the functionality to allow the combustion heat release to be heavily adapted during operation. This allows the injector performance to be simultaneously optimised across a broad range of engine conditions, removing the constraints of having to select a single rate shape type for all operating conditions. This new technology range builds on the performance of Delphi's 2700 bar Fuel Systems of F2E, F2P and F2R, whilst adding in new levels of injector control, beyond what is available in the current market. In addition to this new functionality, Delphi's new Heavy Duty Injector range also demonstrates greatly reduced leakage and improved accuracy of fuel control. This paper reviews the benefits and possibilities of this new injector technology.
Technical Paper

Innovative Sprays and Particulate Reduction with GDi Injectors

2014-04-01
2014-01-1441
Innovative nozzle hole shapes for inwardly opening multi-hole gasoline direct injectors offer opportunities for improved mixture formation and particulate emissions reduction. Compared to increased fuel pressure, an alternative associated with higher system costs and increased pumping work, nozzle hole shaping simply requires changes to the injector nozzle shape and may have the potential to meet Euro 6 particulate regulations at today's 200 bar operating pressure. Using advanced laser drilling technology, injectors with non-round nozzle holes were built and tested on a single-cylinder engine with a centrally-mounted injector location. Particulate emissions were measured and coking deposits were imaged over time at several operating fuel pressures. This paper presents spray analysis and engine test results showing the potential benefits of alternative non-round nozzle holes in reducing particulate emissions and enhancing robustness to coking with various operating fuel pressures.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Holography for High Pressure Fuel Injector Noise Measurements

2014-04-01
2014-01-1679
The audible noise characteristics of direct injectors are important to OEM customers when selecting a high pressure gasoline fuel injector. The activation noise is an undesirable aspect that needs to be minimized through injector design, injector mounting, and acoustic treatments. Experimentally identifying the location and frequency of noise sources is beneficial to the improvement of injector designs. Acoustic holography is a useful tool in locating these noise sources by measuring a sound pressure field with multiple microphones and using this field to estimate the source location. For injector testing, the local boundary conditions of the noise source will affect the resultant sound field. Therefore, how the injector is mounted within the test fixture will change the resultant noise field measured. In this study, the process of qualifying an acoustic holography fixture using measurement system analysis for GDi fuel injector testing will be documented.
Technical Paper

Concept of Virtual Engine Control Module for High Quality and Time Efficient Verification and Testing of Powertrain Engine Control Module

2015-04-14
2015-01-0170
Wide varieties of vehicle Engine Management Systems are designed by different Tier#1 suppliers to meet highly complex requirements with the help of electronics. Emerging technologies and features of Engine Management Systems require a number of strategies for reducing the overall timing for verification with high quality testing. Analysis and decoding of data especially for highly critical and complex such as gasoline direct injection (GDi) engine fuel delivery output, high pressure fuel pump (HPFP), spark control output and different varieties of engine position signals are time consuming. This paper introduces Virtual Engine Control Module (VECM) technology to solve the problem of decoding complex signals and high level verification. A proposed test bench setup consists of VECM, ECM, simulator and real actuator load with complete software flashed inside the ECM.
Technical Paper

Designed Experiment to Evaluate the Canning Strength of Various High Cell Density / Ultra Thin Wall Ceramic Monoliths

2001-09-24
2001-01-3663
High cell density (HCD) (≥ 600 cpsi) and /or ultra thin wall (UTW) (≤ 4 mil) extruded ceramic monolith substrates are being used in many new automotive catalyst applications because they offer (1) increased geometric surface area, (2) lower thermal mass, (3) increased open frontal area and (4) higher heat and mass transfer rates. Delphi has shown in previous papers how to use the effectiveness, NTU theory, to optimize the various benefits of these HCD / UTW catalysts. A primary disadvantage of these low solid fraction substrates is their reduced structural strength, as measured by a 3-D hydrostatic (isostatic) test. The weakest of these new substrates is only 10 to 20% as strong as standard 400 × 6.5 substrates. Improved converter assembly methods with lower, more uniform forces will likely be required to successfully assemble converters with such weak substrates in production.
Technical Paper

F2E - Ultra High Pressure Distributed Pump Common Rail System

2014-04-01
2014-01-1440
Delphi Diesel Systems' 2700bar Proven F2E Distributed Pump Common Rail System (DPCRS) has been developed to meet the requirements of Euro VI and future emissions legislation and is now in volume production in Heavy Duty Vehicles. Incorporating a number of ground breaking new technologies, the system offers numerous performance advantages. F2E provides full common rail functionality for camshaft driven Fuel Injection Equipment (FIE) engines with minimum modification. By delivering precise and accurate control of multiple injections at maximum rail pressure across all engine operating conditions, the system minimizes the demands on exhaust after treatment systems. Additionally F2E provides real time flexible capacity by employing a unique method of pump fuel metering, enabling the most efficient and accurate transient control of rail pressure combined with the low NVH and optimised efficiency.
Journal Article

Fuel Pressure and Charge Motion Effects on GDi Engine Particulate Emissions

2015-04-14
2015-01-0746
The focus of this study is investigation of the influence of fuel system pressure, intake tumble charge motion and injector seat specification - namely the static flow and the plume pattern - on the GDi engine particulate emissions under the homogenous combustion operation. The paper presents the spray characteristics and the single cylinder engine combustion data for the Delphi Multec® 14 GDi multi-hole fuel injector, capable of 40 [MPa] fuel system pressure. It provides results of a study of the influence of fuel pressure increase between 5 [MPa] to 40 [MPa], for three alternative seat designs, on the combustion characteristics, specifically the particulate and gaseous emissions and the fuel consumption. In conjunction with the fuel system pressure, the effect of enhanced charge motion on the combustion characteristics is investigated.
Technical Paper

The Effects of GDi Fuel Pressure on Fuel Economy

2014-04-01
2014-01-1438
To meet future particulate number regulations, one path being investigated is higher fuel pressures for direct injection systems. At operating pressures of 30 MPa to 40 MPa, the fuel system components must be designed to withstand these pressures and additional power is required by the pump to pressurize the fuel to higher pressures than the nominal 15MPa to 20MPa in use today. This additional power to the pump can affect vehicle fuel economy, but may be partially offset by increases in combustion efficiency due to improved spray mixture preparation. This paper examines the impact on fuel economy from increased system fuel pressures from a combination of test results and simulations. A GDi pump and valvetrain model has been developed and correlated to existing pump torque measurements and subsequently used to predict the increase in torque and associated impact on fuel economy due to higher GDi system pressures.
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