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Technical Paper

Automotive Miniaturization Trend: Challenges for Wiring Harness Manufacturing

One of the most evident trends in automotive sector is miniaturization. It is related to considerable benefits due to the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. It involves many different automobile components and most of them are facing challenges to achieve the targets defined by car makers and final consumers. Specifically for wiring harness, it seems to be many manufacturing and process challenges to be surpassed in order to fully perceive the benefits expected with miniaturization, internally and externally. So this article aims to present an overview of literature as well as reporting of experts on this issue mentioning some of the challenges that global automotive wiring harness manufacturers are facing. Subjects as assembly automation, terminal connection and small gauge cables are discussed in the article and also a general overview of how those problems are being addressed in order to meet customer requirements.
Technical Paper

Resistance Welding for Automotive Wiring Harness Connection - Small Gauge Cables

Miniaturization is an important trend in many technology segments, once it can enable innovative applications generating new markets. This trend was begun in electronics industry after World War II and has spawned changes into automotive sector also. For Automotive Wiring Harness, miniaturization is clearly presented in most of the components, mainly because of its benefits like the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. Furthermore the main voice of customer points to cable gauge reduction that represents a considerable challenge for connection manufacturing process due to quality control limitations presented by conventional crimp process for 0,35 [mm₂] cables and smaller. According to that, the scope of this article is to present, in details, a manufacturing process optimization for an alternative and more robust technology of joining copper stranded cables to tin brass terminals used on automotive wiring harness, Resistance Welding.
Journal Article

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single-cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Cavity Fill Balancing Technique for Rubber Injection Molding

Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold - even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Comparative analysis of molded runner samples reveals a significant and positive improvement in runner and cavity fill balancing when the Vanturi Effect is integrated into the runner design.
Technical Paper

Zero Resistance Technology (ZRT)

Delphi's Zero Resistance Technology (ZRT) is a revolutionary new product/process that enables the reduction of mass and volume from a traditional wiring assembly. ZRT is defined as a minimal (zero) resistance change over time. The ZRT product is an electrical/electronic connection system which provides a viable solution for high density and limited space wiring applications. The ZRT process is a semi-automated wiring harness manufacturing system with flexibility to produce harnesses to the customer demand.
Technical Paper

42V Power Supply Systems Impact for Emerging Market Projects

This paper provides a survey about the consequences of a 42V Power Supply System for new vehicle projects, specially, its impact on directed project for Emerging Markets. At a first moment, it will be described new systems and its demand for additional power availability for future projects, such as electrical steering and brake systems; electrical air conditioning compressor; and electrical water and oil pumps. Following this subject, it will be presented possible alternatives for 14/42V Power Supply Systems, and also its impact over Power and Signal Distribution System components, such as connector, terminals, cables, relays, electrical centers, etc. Finally, the previous presented scenarios will be analyzed under a point of view for the Emerging Market demand for such new proposed systems, looking for best alternative driven.
Technical Paper

CFD-Aided Development of Spray for an Outwardly Opening Direct Injection Gasoline Injector

A high pressure outwardly opening fuel injector has been developed to produce sprays that meet the stringent requirements of gasoline direct injection (DI) combustion systems. Predictions of spray characteristics have been made using KIVA-3 in conjunction with Star-CD injector flow modeling. After some modeling iterations, the nozzle design has been optimized for the required flow, injector performance, and spray characteristics. The hardware test results of flow and spray have confirmed the numerical modeling accuracy and the spray quality. The spray's average Sauter mean diameter (SMD) is less than 15 microns at 30 mm distance from the nozzle. The DV90, defined as the drop diameter such that 90% of the total liquid volume is in drops of smaller diameter, is less than 40 microns. The maximum penetration is about 70 mm into air at atmospheric pressure. An initial spray slug is not created due to the absence of a sac volume.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Brake Caliper Seal-Groove Design

It is well known that the design of the seal groove assembly in the brake caliper greatly influences the braking performance. The rubber seal performs the dual function of sealing the piston bore and retracting the caliper piston after a brake apply. However, the seal function is affected by the configuration of the seal groove, as well as the friction at the piston/seal and groove/seal interfaces. The material properties of the rubber seal are also important design parameters. Issues such as fluid displacement, piston retraction, piston sliding force, and brake drag are some of the critical brake performance parameters that must be considered in every caliper seal-groove design. Presently, the brake caliper seal groove design is still based on empirical rules established mainly from past experience and its performance is achieved through prototype testing.
Technical Paper

Implications of 3-D Internal Flow Simulation on the Design of Inward-Opening Pressure-Swirl Injectors

A parametric study on the effects of critical injector design parameters of inwardly-opening pressure-swirl injectors was carried out using 3-D internal flow simulations. The pressure variation and the integrated momentum flux across the injector, as well as the flow distributions and turbulence structure at the nozzle exit were analyzed. The critical flow effects on the injector design identified are the swirler efficiency, discharge coefficient, and turbulence breakup effects on the spray structure. The study shows that as a unique class of injectors, pressure-swirl injectors is complicated in fluid mechanics and not sufficiently characterized or optimized. The swirler efficiency is characterized in terms of the trade-off relationship between the swirl-to-axial momentum-flux ratio and pressure drop across the swirler. The results show that swirl number is inversely proportional to discharge coefficient, and that hole diameter and swirler height is the most dominant parameters.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Assessment of Rotor Distortion Attributed to Wheel Assembly

The lateral runout of disc brake corner components can lead to the generation of brake system pulsation. Emphasis on reducing component flatness and lateral runout tolerances are a typical response to address this phenomenon. This paper presents the results of an analytical study that examined the effect that the attachment of the wheel to the brake corner assembly could have on the lateral distortion of the rotor. An analysis procedure was developed to utilize the finite element method and simulate the mechanics of the assembly process. Calculated rotor distortions were compared to laboratory measurements. A statistical approach was utilized, in conjunction with the finite element method, to study a number of wheel and brake corner parameters and identify the characteristics of a robust design.
Technical Paper

Environmentally Friendly Car Wiring System

Legal requirements and responsibility for the environment require improved recyclability of car components. This can be achieved by a reduction in the variety of materials used, which can be separated after use. This is being demonstrated for wiring harnesses using a new hook and loop based fastening system. Easier assembly and disassembly, elimination of fixation holes in the car body, and improved serviceability can lead to considerable cost reductions. Field experience on test cars will be available at a later date.
Technical Paper

Development of Electrical-Electronic Controls for a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

Delphi is developing a new combustion technology called Gasoline Direct-injection Compression Ignition (GDCI), which has shown promise for substantially improving fuel economy. This new technology is able to reuse some of the controls common to traditional spark ignition (SI) engines; however, it also requires several new sensors and actuators, some of which are not common to traditional SI engines. Since this is new technology development, the required hardware set has continued to evolve over the course of the project. In order to support this development work, a highly capable and flexible electronic control system is necessary. Integrating all of the necessary functions into a single controller, or two, would require significant up-front controller hardware development, and would limit the adaptability of the electronic controls to the evolving requirements for GDCI.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Mechanical Variable Valve Actuation System

Compromises inherent with fixed valve lift and event timing have prompted engine designers to consider Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) systems for many decades. In recent years, some relatively basic forms of VVA have been introduced into production engines. Greater performance and driveability expectations of customers, more stringent emission regulations set by government legislators, and the mutual desire for higher fuel economy are increasingly at odds. As a solution, many OEM companies are seriously considering large-scale application of higher function VVA mechanisms in their next generation vehicles. This paper describes the continuing development progress of a mechanical VVA system. Design features and operation of the mechanism are explained. Test results are presented in two sections: motored cylinder head test data focuses on VVA system friction, control system performance, valve lift and component stress.
Technical Paper

Flow Simulation of a Direct-Injection Gasoline Diaphragm Fuel Pump with Structural Interactions

The fluid flow in a direct-injection gasoline diaphragm fuel pump is analyzed using a multi-physics simulation program. The analysis accounts for fully coupled fluid-structure interactions (FSI), the effects of the diaphragm movement and its deformation, the FSI between the diaphragm and the fluid, the FSI between the inlet/outlet valves and the fluid, and the solid-solid contact between the inlet/outlet valves and the valve seats. The flow rate of the fuel pump under various cam speeds is examined. The accuracy of the predictions for the flow rate of the fuel pump is assessed through comparisons with the experimental data, and moderately good agreement is obtained. In addition, some conclusions based on this study are summarized for reference.
Technical Paper

Characterization of the Dynamic Response of a Cylinder Deactivation Valvetrain System

This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of a cylinder deactivation valvetrain system for the integration into an Engine Management System (EMS). A control-oriented lumped parameter model of the deactivation valvetrain system is developed and implemented using Matlab/Simulink, and validated by experimental data. Through simulation and experimental data analysis, the effect of operating conditions on the dynamic response is captured and characterized, over a wide range of operating conditions. The algorithm provides a basis for the calibration of the deactivation hardware. The generic characterization of the dynamic response can simplify the calibration parameters for the implementation in engine management systems.
Technical Paper

LIN Bus and its Potential for Use in Distributed Multiplex Applications

The increasing features and complexity of today's automotive architectures are becoming increasingly difficult to manage. Each new innovation typically requires additional mechanical actuators and associated electrical controllers. The sheer number of black boxes and wiring are being limited not by features or cost but by the inability to physically assemble them into a vehicle. A new architecture is required which will support the ability to add new features but also enable the Vehicle Assembly Plants to easily assemble and test each subsystem. One such architecture is a distributed multiplex arrangement that reduces the number of wires while enabling flexibility and expandability. Previous versions have had to deal with issues such as noise immunity at high switching currents. The LIN Bus with its low cost and rail-to-rail capability may be the key enabling technology to make the multiplexed architecture a reality.
Technical Paper

Two Dimensional Modeling of a Rotary Power Steering Valve

The power steering valve plays a key role in the steering performance of a vehicle. It is desirable, therefore, to have a means of predicting valve performance for the development of the steering system. This paper describes a method of applying the orifice equation to a steering valve, along with the procedure for experimentally determining the flow coefficients for this equation. Data is provided which demonstrates the nature of change of the flow coefficients through the operating range of the valve. A method for accounting for these changes is provided, along with correlation results for measured and predicted valve performance.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Dynamic Analysis of a SuperPlug™ Door Module Response to a Door Slam Event

The SuperPlug™ door module is a new Delphi innovation. It is a one-piece composite structure, which integrates several door components into one assembly. This reduces the total part count, simplifies the vehicle level assembly process, and reduces labor cost (see the Appendix). The door slam durability test is an important factor in door module design. As more hardware is integrated into the SuperPlug, this subsystem performance in a door slam test becomes important. Therefore, the correct placement of components and the supporting structure is critical. Currently, the evaluation of door slam durability for the SuperPlug is a process of build then test. This is time consuming and costly due to a long testing lead-time and the expense of tooling a new mold. It was realized that a numerical process for assessing the effect of door slam would be required. This process would compute the dynamic response using finite element analysis (FEA).
Technical Paper

Globalization of the Design for Manufacturability/Assembly Process within the Automotive Wiring Assembly Business

Automotive wiring assembly design and manufacturing has evolved from a locally based business to a global business. It is common today to engineer the design of a wiring assembly in one region of the world, to manufacture it in a second region, and to assemble it into the vehicle in a third region. This creates a need for global collaboration, training and communications. Design for Manufacturability (DFM) is a tool that can aid in this, in developing common processes globally, and reducing the cost and design complexity of the product in the early design stages. To develop a global DFM process, an organization must develop and implement a strategy. This paper will review the approach that an automotive wiring assembly supplier adopted. It will enumerate the benefits of developing a global Design for Manufacturability process, selecting a champion, and using a twelve-step plan to integrate DFM into each region.
Technical Paper

System Modeling of A Damper Module

A recent trend within the automotive industry has been an emphasis on the development of modular assemblies for future vehicle applications. This trend has created a need for the development of methods to predict the performance of modules within the vehicle environment. In particular, the development of system models that account for the interactions between components within a modular assembly is necessary to insure that a module is properly designed. This paper describes a finite element system model of a damper module as installed in a McPherson strut front suspension. The modeling techniques used to construct the components within the modular assembly are discussed. The results of a study of the structural behavior of a damper module model subjected to quasi-static loading conditions are presented. Additionally, the effects of changes in individual component specifications on the overall system response are considered and the results are displayed.