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Technical Paper

Automotive Miniaturization Trend: Challenges for Wiring Harness Manufacturing

One of the most evident trends in automotive sector is miniaturization. It is related to considerable benefits due to the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. It involves many different automobile components and most of them are facing challenges to achieve the targets defined by car makers and final consumers. Specifically for wiring harness, it seems to be many manufacturing and process challenges to be surpassed in order to fully perceive the benefits expected with miniaturization, internally and externally. So this article aims to present an overview of literature as well as reporting of experts on this issue mentioning some of the challenges that global automotive wiring harness manufacturers are facing. Subjects as assembly automation, terminal connection and small gauge cables are discussed in the article and also a general overview of how those problems are being addressed in order to meet customer requirements.
Technical Paper

Resistance Welding for Automotive Wiring Harness Connection - Small Gauge Cables

Miniaturization is an important trend in many technology segments, once it can enable innovative applications generating new markets. This trend was begun in electronics industry after World War II and has spawned changes into automotive sector also. For Automotive Wiring Harness, miniaturization is clearly presented in most of the components, mainly because of its benefits like the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. Furthermore the main voice of customer points to cable gauge reduction that represents a considerable challenge for connection manufacturing process due to quality control limitations presented by conventional crimp process for 0,35 [mm₂] cables and smaller. According to that, the scope of this article is to present, in details, a manufacturing process optimization for an alternative and more robust technology of joining copper stranded cables to tin brass terminals used on automotive wiring harness, Resistance Welding.
Technical Paper

Development of an Analytical Tool for Multilayer Stack Assemblies

The development of an analytical model for multilayer stack subjected to temperature change is demonstrated here. Thin continuous layers of materials bonded together deform as a plate due to their differing coefficients of thermal expansion upon subjecting the bonded materials to the change in temperature. Applications of such structures can be found in the electronics industry (the study of warpage issues in printed circuit boards) or in the aerospace industry as (the study of laminated thin sheets used as skin structures for load bearing members such as wings and fuselage). In automotive electronics, critical high-power packages (IGBT, Power FETs) include several layers of widely differing materials (aluminum, solder, copper, ceramics) subjected to wide temperature cyclic ranges. Modeling of such structures by using three-dimensional finite element methods is usually time consuming and may not exactly predict the inter-laminar strains.
Technical Paper

Full Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Battery Pack System Design, CFD Simulation and Testing

CFD analysis was performed using the FLUENT software to design the thermal system for a hybrid vehicle battery pack. The battery pack contained multiple modular battery elements, called bricks, and the inlet and outlet bus bars that electrically connected the bricks into a series string. The simulated thermal system was comprised of the vehicle cabin, seat cavity, inlet plenum, battery pack, a downstream centrifugal fan, and the vehicle trunk. The fan was modeled using a multiple reference frame approach. A full system analysis was done for airflow and thermal performance optimization to ensure the most uniform cell temperatures under all operating conditions. The mesh for the full system was about 13 million cells run on a 6-node HP cluster. A baseline design was first analyzed for fluid-thermal performance. Subsequently, multiple design iterations were run to create uniform airflow among all the individual bricks while minimizing parasitic pressure drop.
Journal Article

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single-cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000 rpm.
Journal Article

Energy Efficient HVAC System with Spot Cooling in an Automobile - Design and CFD Analysis

Spot, or distributed, cooling and heating is an energy efficient way of delivering comfort to an occupant in the car. This paper describes an approach to distributed cooling in the vehicle. A two passenger CFD model of an SUV cabin was developed to obtain the solar and convective thermal loads on the vehicle, characterize the interior thermal environment and accurately evaluate the fluid-thermal environment around the occupants. The present paper focuses on the design and CFD analysis of the energy efficient HVAC system with spot cooling. The CFD model was validated with wind tunnel data for its overall accuracy. A baseline system with conventional HVAC air was first analyzed at mid and high ambient conditions. The airflow and cooling delivered to the driver and the passenger was calculated. Subsequently, spot cooling was analyzed in conjunction with a much lower conventional HVAC airflow.
Technical Paper

Thermal Comfort Prediction and Validation in a Realistic Vehicle Thermal Environment

The focus of this study is to validate the predictive capability of a recently developed physiology based thermal comfort modeling tool in a realistic thermal environment of a vehicle passenger compartment. Human subject test data for thermal sensation and comfort was obtained in a climatic wind tunnel for a cross-over vehicle in a relatively warm thermal environment including solar load. A CFD/thermal model that simulates the vehicle operating conditions in the tunnel, is used to provide the necessary inputs required by the stand-alone thermal comfort tool. Comparison of the local and the overall thermal sensation and comfort levels between the human subject test and the tool's predictions shows a reasonably good agreement. The next step is to use this modeling technique in designing and developing energy-efficient HVAC systems without compromising thermal comfort of the vehicle occupants.
Technical Paper

Cavity Fill Balancing Technique for Rubber Injection Molding

Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold - even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Comparative analysis of molded runner samples reveals a significant and positive improvement in runner and cavity fill balancing when the Vanturi Effect is integrated into the runner design.
Technical Paper


Several heater cores failed due to erosion by cavitation. After analysis, most of failures were explained by the presence of impurities in the heater core. It was then decided with the customer to use CFD simulation in order to prove that the cavitation was not caused by design concept of the tank. In this paper, we present the results of heater core simulations done in 2D and in 3D with Fluent. The objective is to simulate the pressure and velocity distribution within the heater core and to verify if the zones of low pressure are below the saturation vapour pressure of the fluid causing cavitation. In these areas, the deterioration of the tubes might occur due to erosion by cavitation.
Technical Paper

Zero Resistance Technology (ZRT)

Delphi's Zero Resistance Technology (ZRT) is a revolutionary new product/process that enables the reduction of mass and volume from a traditional wiring assembly. ZRT is defined as a minimal (zero) resistance change over time. The ZRT product is an electrical/electronic connection system which provides a viable solution for high density and limited space wiring applications. The ZRT process is a semi-automated wiring harness manufacturing system with flexibility to produce harnesses to the customer demand.
Technical Paper

42V Power Supply Systems Impact for Emerging Market Projects

This paper provides a survey about the consequences of a 42V Power Supply System for new vehicle projects, specially, its impact on directed project for Emerging Markets. At a first moment, it will be described new systems and its demand for additional power availability for future projects, such as electrical steering and brake systems; electrical air conditioning compressor; and electrical water and oil pumps. Following this subject, it will be presented possible alternatives for 14/42V Power Supply Systems, and also its impact over Power and Signal Distribution System components, such as connector, terminals, cables, relays, electrical centers, etc. Finally, the previous presented scenarios will be analyzed under a point of view for the Emerging Market demand for such new proposed systems, looking for best alternative driven.
Technical Paper

Comparison between FR-4 and Ceramic Substrate

This paper investigates the application of thick film hybrid circuit technology on ceramic substrate in comparison to the main stream substrate FR-4 (Flame Retardant 4) for PCB implementation. The study is based on computer models for these very substrates in order to simulate the propagation of heat through convection and conduction within the material boundaries. In order to simulate electronic components surface mounted, different heat sources are randomly arranged on physical contact to the surface of the material under investigation. The results emphasize and discern the usage of both substrates and its most suitable environment verifying the application towards vehicular integration. Future study may include experimental analysis for simulated data verification and validation of thick film hybrid circuit technology for the automotive industry.
Journal Article

Model-Based Development of AUTOSAR-Compliant Applications: Exterior Lights Module Case Study

The complexity of automotive software and the needs for shorter development time and software portability require the development of new approaches and standards for software architectures. The AUTOSAR project is one of the most comprehensive and promising solutions for defining a methodology supporting a function-driven development process. Furthermore, it manifests itself as a standard for expressing compatible software interfaces at the Application Layer. This paper discusses the implementation of AUTOSAR requirements for the component structure, as well as interfaces to the Application Layer in a model-based development environment. The paper outlines the major AUTOSAR requirements for software components, provides examples of their implementation in a Simulink/Stateflow model, and describes the modelbased implementation of an operating system for running AUTOSAR software executables (“runnables”).
Technical Paper

CFD-Aided Development of Spray for an Outwardly Opening Direct Injection Gasoline Injector

A high pressure outwardly opening fuel injector has been developed to produce sprays that meet the stringent requirements of gasoline direct injection (DI) combustion systems. Predictions of spray characteristics have been made using KIVA-3 in conjunction with Star-CD injector flow modeling. After some modeling iterations, the nozzle design has been optimized for the required flow, injector performance, and spray characteristics. The hardware test results of flow and spray have confirmed the numerical modeling accuracy and the spray quality. The spray's average Sauter mean diameter (SMD) is less than 15 microns at 30 mm distance from the nozzle. The DV90, defined as the drop diameter such that 90% of the total liquid volume is in drops of smaller diameter, is less than 40 microns. The maximum penetration is about 70 mm into air at atmospheric pressure. An initial spray slug is not created due to the absence of a sac volume.
Technical Paper

A Madymo Model of the Foot and Leg for Local Impacts

It has been reported that lower extremity injuries represent a measurable portion of all moderate-to-severe automobile crash- related injuries. Thus, a simple tool to assist with the design of leg and foot injury countermeasures is desirable. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model which can predict load propagation and kinematics of the foot and leg in frontal automotive impacts. A multi-body model developed at the University of Virginia and validated for blunt impact to the whole foot has been used as basis for the current work. This model includes representations of the tibia, fibula, talus, hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot bones. Additionally, the model provides a means for tensioning the Achilles tendon. In the current study, the simulations conducted correspond to tests performed by the Transport Research Laboratory and the University of Nottingham on knee-amputated cadaver specimens.
Technical Paper

Use of CFD Simulation to Predict Fan Power and Airflow Pattern Inside the Climatic Chamber

For A/C and cooling systems development is usual send vehicles to US or Europe for wind tunnel tests, witch is expensive and has a long lead-time. Here in Brazil Delphi has at the Piracicaba Technical Center a chamber equipped with temperature control and chassis dynamometer. There is a up-grade project for it that consist in add ducts with fans inside the chamber that will get air from the chamber, already in the right temperature, accelerate and homogenate the air flow and blow it out direct to the front end of the vehicle. For development purposes may be possible eliminate totally the necessity of sending vehicle abroad. It was then decided to use CFD simulation to predict firstly the required fan power necessary to supply winds until 120 km/h at the front end of the vehicle and secondly predict the airflow pattern inside the chamber, considering chamber inlet air, chamber outlet air, exhaust outlet, duct outlet and flow pattern around the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Vehicle Stability with Engine Drag Control

This paper describes the development and implementation of an Engine Drag Control algorithm to improve vehicle stability performance. Engine drag can occur on low and high coefficient surfaces when the driver suddenly releases the throttle. If the engine drag force becomes larger than the frictional force between the tire and the road, the tires will break loose from the surface and slip. This could induce vehicle instability especially with rear drive vehicles on low-coefficient surfaces. The EDC algorithm has been developed to provide accurate control of the wheels. EDC will help reduce the yaw rate of the vehicle and thus achieve greater vehicle stability. The paper also presents methods used to test the robustness of such a system. The purpose of the testing was to ensure that there would be no false activations of EDC under normal driving conditions and also to ensure that, when the system is active, it is mostly transparent to the driver.
Technical Paper

Use of Fuzzy Logic in Wheel Slip Assignment - Part II: Yaw Rate Control with Sideslip Angle Limitation

This paper is an extension to the work presented in part I [1]. The control objective is still the same - use a logic based control design technique to assign a wheel slip, λ, to each corner of a vehicle, to track overall desired vehicle dynamics. As in part I, a fuzzy logic based controller is the primary control, with additional logic to select the inside/outside classifiers for the wheels. In part I, only the reduction of yaw rate error, e, was considered. It was shown that, although the overall system had satisfactory performance, there was slight deteriorization in the tracking performance when trying to compensate through a significant vehicle sideslip angle, β. In this paper, additional logic is introduced into the control to limit the vehicle sideslip angle, β; thus, allowing for a more robust desired yaw rate, Ωd, tracking control performance. The emergency lane change maneuver is simulated to show the effectiveness of the redesigned control.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Brake Caliper Seal-Groove Design

It is well known that the design of the seal groove assembly in the brake caliper greatly influences the braking performance. The rubber seal performs the dual function of sealing the piston bore and retracting the caliper piston after a brake apply. However, the seal function is affected by the configuration of the seal groove, as well as the friction at the piston/seal and groove/seal interfaces. The material properties of the rubber seal are also important design parameters. Issues such as fluid displacement, piston retraction, piston sliding force, and brake drag are some of the critical brake performance parameters that must be considered in every caliper seal-groove design. Presently, the brake caliper seal groove design is still based on empirical rules established mainly from past experience and its performance is achieved through prototype testing.
Technical Paper

Implications of 3-D Internal Flow Simulation on the Design of Inward-Opening Pressure-Swirl Injectors

A parametric study on the effects of critical injector design parameters of inwardly-opening pressure-swirl injectors was carried out using 3-D internal flow simulations. The pressure variation and the integrated momentum flux across the injector, as well as the flow distributions and turbulence structure at the nozzle exit were analyzed. The critical flow effects on the injector design identified are the swirler efficiency, discharge coefficient, and turbulence breakup effects on the spray structure. The study shows that as a unique class of injectors, pressure-swirl injectors is complicated in fluid mechanics and not sufficiently characterized or optimized. The swirler efficiency is characterized in terms of the trade-off relationship between the swirl-to-axial momentum-flux ratio and pressure drop across the swirler. The results show that swirl number is inversely proportional to discharge coefficient, and that hole diameter and swirler height is the most dominant parameters.