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Technical Paper

High Frequency Ignition System for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1223
A high-frequency electrical resonance-based ignition concept is in development to replace conventional spark ignition functionality for gasoline engines employing various types of fuel injection methods. The concept provides the benefit of a continuous discharge phase and the electrical power of the discharge can also be adjusted to the needs of the combustion conditions. This concept employs an alternative method of generating high voltages, using inductors and capacitors trimmed such that the supplied energy steadily increases the output voltage. This configuration is widely known as Tesla transformer and has been engineered to operate in a modern gasoline engine combustion environment. This development allows very high break down voltages to be generated and the power into the spark itself can be influenced.
Technical Paper

Minimizing Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) Fuel System Pressure Pulsations by Robust Fuel Rail Design

2011-04-12
2011-01-1225
Gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines have become popular due to their inherent potential for reduction of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption to meet increasingly stringent environmental standards. These engines require high-pressure fuel injection in order to improve the fuel atomization process and accelerate mixture preparation. To achieve a lower-cost system, a single-piston high-pressure fuel pump design is often employed due to its relative simplicity. However, pumps of this design are acknowledged as the source of high levels of fuel pressure fluctuations which can lead to audible noise, variations in the amount and spray quality of fuel delivery from cylinder to cylinder, compromised durability and consumer dissatisfaction. In this paper, the design process for a high-pressure fuel rail assembly using Robust Engineering methodology is presented.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Fuel Control for Imbalance Diagnosis

2010-04-12
2010-01-0157
This paper identifies a select method for performing cylinder imbalance measurement, correction and diagnosis. The impetus is to address new U.S. Federal regulations that require the detection of excessive cylinder air-fuel ratio (AFR) imbalance, and doing so requires the foundational ability to measure and preferably remove cylinder imbalance via active closed-loop control. This function is called Individual Cylinder Fuel Control (ICFC). ICFC starts by extracting cylinder-imbalance information from the front oxygen sensor, and that information comes in the form a of continuous data stream. That stream is then parsed to create virtual sensors- one for each cylinder. Each virtual sensor acts as an imbalance or error signal which ICFC uses to correct and learn via feedback and feed-forward control for each cylinder. The cylinder imbalance diagnostic is enabled by the presence of ICFC.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Noise Assessment of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) Components Using Taguchi Methods - Application to GDi High-Pressure Pumps

2010-04-12
2010-01-0586
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) system is a relatively new technology. In early implementations, its major components, i.e. high pressure fuel pump, injectors, and fuel rails, emit objectionable acoustic noise during normal operation. This paper will focus on making an objective comparison (assessment) of acoustic noise emitted by several cam-driven high pressure fuel pumps during their normal operation, especially at engine idle. Taguchi robust engineering methods will be used to conduct the robust assessment study of six GDi high-pressure pumps. A-weighted total sound pressure level (SPL), processed from two free-field microphones around each pump, will be used as the main function in the Taguchi design of experiments (DOE).
Technical Paper

Thermal Modeling for Heated Tip Injectors

2010-04-12
2010-01-1264
Brazilian ethanol vehicles are typically equipped with an auxiliary gasoline sub-tank fuel system which aids cold starting and drivability for low ambient temperatures. Port fuel injectors capable of rapidly heating ethanol have been developed to eliminate this auxiliary system. These injectors also enable reductions in emissions. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used in conjunction with Taguchi Robust Engineering methods to optimize the heat exchanging geometry of these heated injectors. Simulation results are confirmed with experimental hardware and engine cold start testing. Modeling results, experimental hardware, and engine cold start performance is presented and discussed.
Journal Article

Full-Time Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) for High Efficiency and Low NOx and PM

2012-04-16
2012-01-0384
A gasoline compression-ignition combustion system is being developed for full-time operation over the speed-load map. Low-temperature combustion was achieved using multiple late injection (MLI), intake boost, and moderate EGR for high efficiency, low NOx, and low particulate emissions. The relatively long ignition delay and high volatility of RON 91 pump gasoline combined with an advanced injection system and variable valve actuation provided controlled mixture stratification for low combustion noise. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder research engine. Design of Experiments and response surface models were used to evaluate injection strategies, injector designs, and various valve lift profiles across the speed-load operating range. At light loads, an exhaust rebreathing strategy was used to promote autoignition and maintain exhaust temperatures. At medium loads, a triple injection strategy produced the best results with high thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Fuel Driveability Index Sensor

2003-10-27
2003-01-3238
Variation of gasoline's driveability index (DI) limits control of the air-to-fuel ratio during cold starts. The DI of fuel purchased at the pump is correlated with ambient temperature. The DI variability that remains after accounting for this correlation is quantified for fuel samples collected in 1998. A new type of sensor to measure DI is introduced. The sensor is located in the fuel tank, above the highest liquid level. A small sample of fuel is heated at the end of each trip. Capacitance measurement is used to determine oxygenate concentration and to monitor the evaporation of the sample as a function of temperature. The sensor has been used to determine the DI of fuel on-board a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Correlating Port Fuel injection to Wetted Fuel Footprints on Combustion Chamber Walls and UBHC in Engine Start Processes

2003-10-27
2003-01-3240
Unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions from gasoline engines remain a primary engineering research and development concern due to stricter emission regulations. Gasoline engines produce more UBHC emissions during cold start and warm-up than during any other stage of operation, because of insufficient fuel-air mixing, particularly in view of the additional fuel enrichment used for early starting. Impingement of fuel droplets on the cylinder wall is a major source of UBHC and a concern for oil dilution. This paper describes an experimental study that was carried out to investigate the distribution and “footprint” of fuel droplets impinging on the cylinder wall during the intake stroke under engine starting conditions. Injectors having different targeting and atomization characteristics were used in a 4-Valve engine with optical access to the intake port and combustion chamber.
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