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Technical Paper

Controlling Induction System Deposits in Flexible Fuel Vehicles Operating on E85

2007-10-29
2007-01-4071
With the wider use of biofuels in the marketplace, a program was conducted to study the deposit forming tendencies and performance of E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% gasoline) in a modern Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). The test vehicle for this program was a 2006 General Motors Chevrolet Impala FFV equipped with a 3.5 liter V-6 powertrain. A series of 5,000 mile Chassis Dynamometer (CD) Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) and performance tests were conducted while operating the FFV on conventional (E0) regular unleaded gasoline and E85 to determine the deposit forming tendencies of both fuels. E85 test fuels were found to generate significantly higher levels of IVD than would have been predicted from the base gasoline component alone. The effects on the weight and composition of IVD due to a corrosion inhibitor and sulfates that were indigenous to one of the ethanols were also studied.
Technical Paper

Unified Control of Brake- and Steer-by-Wire Systems Using Optimal Control Allocation Methods

2006-04-03
2006-01-0924
A new optimal control strategy for dealing with braking actuator failures in a vehicle equipped with a brake-by-wire and steer-by- wire system is described. The main objective of the control algorithm during the failure mode is to redistribute the control tasks to the functioning actuators, so that the vehicle performance remains as close as possible to the desired performance in spite of a failure. The desired motion of the vehicle in the yaw plane is determined using driver steering and braking inputs along with vehicle speed. For the purpose of synthesizing the control algorithm, a non-linear vehicle model is developed, which describes the vehicle dynamics in the yaw plane in both linear and non-linear ranges of handling. A control allocation algorithm determines the control inputs that minimize the difference between the desired and actual vehicle motions, while satisfying all actuator constraints.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the MADYMO Full FE Human Model in a Rear Impact Simulation of an IndyCar

2006-12-05
2006-01-3659
Computer simulation was used as a complement to crash and injury field data analysis and physical sled and barrier tests to investigate and predict the spinal injuries of a rear impact in an IndyCar. The model was expected to relate the spinal loads to the observed injuries, thereby predicting the probability and location of spinal fractures. The final goal is to help reduce the fracture risk by optimizing the seat and restraint system design and the driver's position using computer modeling and sled testing. MADYMO Full FE Human Body Model (HBM) was selected for use because of its full spinal structural details and its compatibility with the vehicle and restraint system models. However, the IndyCar application imposed unique challenges to the HBM. First, the driver position in a race car is very different from that in a typical passenger car.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Load Distributions between Human Occupants and ATDs in Normal and Non-normal Occupant Positions and Postures

2006-04-03
2006-01-1435
In occupant sensing system development, the Anthropomorphic Test Dummy (ATD) and the Occupant Classification ATD (OCATD) are frequently used to simulate live human subjects in the testing and validation of weight based occupant sensing systems. A study was conducted to investigate the range of loading differences between these ATDs and live human subjects over various seating postures and conditions. The results of the study revealed that differences in seat load patterns could be significant, even though both the ATD and live humans are in the same weight and body size categories. Seat loading was measured using Hybrid III (5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 3 year old) ATDs, OCATDs (OCATD5 - 5th percentile female, and OCATD6 - 6 yr old child), and a CRABI (12-month old) dummy. Human subjects in the same weight and height categories as the above listed ATDs were also measured.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Trade-Off of Handling Stability and Responsiveness with Advanced Control Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0812
Advanced chassis control systems enable a vehicle to achieve new levels of performance in handling stability and responsiveness. In recent work by NHTSA and others, the performance of Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems has been studied with focus on yaw stability and roll stability of vehicles on high friction surfaces. However, it is recognized that vehicle handling responsiveness is also an important aspect that should be maintained. This paper explores the trade-offs between yaw rate, side slip, and roll motions of a vehicle, and their relationships to handling stability and handling responsiveness. This paper further describes how various control systems are able to manage these motions. The paper also discusses methods to assess vehicle stability and responsiveness using specific maneuvers and measurements, and it includes data from vehicle tests on a slippery surface.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach for Real-Time Prognosis of Safety-Critical Vehicle Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1497
The paper describes the development of a vehicle stability indicator based on the correlation between various current vehicle chassis sensors such as hand wheel angle, yaw rate and lateral acceleration. In general, there is a correlation between various pairs of sensor signals when the vehicle operation is linear and stable and a lack of correlation when the vehicle is becoming unstable or operating in a nonlinear region. The paper outlines one potential embodiment of the technology that makes use of the Mahalanobis distance metric to assess the degree of correlation among the sensor signals. With this approach a single scalar metric provides an accurate indication of vehicle stability.
Journal Article

Stability and Control Considerations of Vehicle-Trailer Combination

2008-04-14
2008-01-1228
In this paper, dynamics and stability of an articulated vehicle in the yaw plane are examined through analysis, simulations, and vehicle testing. Control of a vehicle-trailer combination using active braking of the towing vehicle is discussed. A linear analytical model describing lateral and yaw motions of a vehicle-trailer combination is used to study the effects of parameter variations of the trailer on the dynamic stability of the system and limitations of different control strategies. The results predicted by the analytical model are confirmed by testing using a vehicle with a trailer in several configurations. Design of the trailer makes it possible to vary several critical parameters of the trailer. The test data for vehicle with trailer in different configurations is used to validate the detailed non-linear simulation model of the vehicle-trailer combination.
Technical Paper

A Review of Solid Materials as Alternative Ammonia Sources for Lean NOx Reduction with SCR

2009-04-20
2009-01-0907
The need for improved emissions control in lean exhaust to meet tightening, world-wide NOx emissions standards has led to the development of selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ammonia as a major technology for emissions control. Current systems are being designed to use a solution of urea (32.5 wt %) dissolved in water or Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) as the ammonia source. While DEF or AdBlue® is widely used as a source of ammonia, it has a number of issues at low temperatures, including freezing below −12 °C, solid deposit formation in the exhaust, and difficulties in dosing at exhaust temperatures below 200 °C. Additionally creating a uniform ammonia concentration can be problematic, complicating exhaust packaging and usually requiring a discrete mixer.
Technical Paper

Improving Time-To-Collision Estimation by IMM Based Kalman Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-0162
In a CAS system, the distance and relative velocity between front and host vehicles are estimated to calculate time-to-collision (TTC). The distance estimates by different methods will certainly include noise which should be removed to ensure the accuracy of TTC calculations. Kalman filter is a good tool to filter such type of noise. Nevertheless, Kalman filter is a model based filter, which means a correct model is important to get the good filtering results. Usually, a vehicle is either moving with a constant velocity (CV) or constant acceleration (CA) maneuvers. This means the distance data between front and host vehicles can be described by either constant velocity or constant acceleration model. In this paper, first, CV and CA models are used to design two Kalman filters and an interacting multiple model (IMM) is used to dynamically combine the outputs from two filters.
Technical Paper

Influence of Chassis Characteristics on Sustained Roll, Heave and Yaw Oscillations in Dynamic Rollover Testing

2005-04-11
2005-01-0398
In dynamic rollover tests many vehicles experience sustained body roll oscillations during a portion of road edge recovery maneuver, in which constant steering angle is maintained. In this paper, qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given and it is analyzed using simplified models. It is found that the primary root cause of these oscillations is coupling occurring between the vehicle roll, heave and subsequently yaw modes resulting from suspension jacking forces. These forces cause vertical (heave) motions of vehicle body, which in turn affect tire normal and subsequently lateral forces, influencing yaw response of vehicle. As a result, sustained roll, heave and yaw oscillations occur during essentially a steady-state portion of maneuver. Analysis and simulations are used to assess the influence of several chassis characteristics on the self-excited oscillations. The results provide important insights, which may influence suspension design.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Midsize Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility

2004-10-25
2004-01-3062
The University of Wisconsin - Madison hybrid vehicle team has designed and constructed a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2003 competition. This is a multi-year project utilizing a 2002 4.0 liter Ford Explorer as the base vehicle. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs 2000 kg and includes a prototype aluminum frame. The Moolander uses a high efficiency, 1.8 liter, common rail, turbo-charged, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine supplying 85 kW of peak power and an AC induction motor that provides an additional 60 kW of peak power. The 145 kW hybrid drivetrain will out-accelerate the stock V6 powertrain while producing similar emissions and drastically reducing fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) combined driving cycle fuel economy of 16.05 km/L (37.8 mpg).
Technical Paper

NOx-Trap Catalyst Development for Mitsubishi 1.8L GDI™ Application

2003-10-27
2003-01-3078
A new single-brick Ba + alkali metals NOx-Trap catalyst has been developed to replace a two-brick NOx-Trap system containing a downstream three-way catalyst. Major development efforts include: 1) platinum group metals selection for higher HC oxidation with potassium-containing washcoat, 2) alumina and ceria selection, and Rh architecture design for more efficient NOx reduction and 3) NiO to suppress H2S odor. Mitsubishi Motors' 1.8L GDI™ with this Delphi new NOx-Trap catalyst with H2S control achieves J-LEV standard with less cost and lower backpressure compared to the previous model. It is further discovered that incorporation of NiO into the NOx-Trap washcoat is effective for H2S control during sulfur purge but has a negative impact on thermal durability and sulfur resistance. Further study to improve this trade-off has been made and preliminary results of an advanced washcoat design are presented in this paper. Details will be reported in a future publication.
Technical Paper

A System Approach to the Drag Performance of Disc Brake Caliper

2003-10-19
2003-01-3300
Among the performance concerns in brake design, drag and fluid displacement are getting more attention in the requirement definition. High drag not only affects fuel efficiency and lining life, it is also a contributing factor to rotor thickness variation and brake pulsation. In this paper, a system approach to drag performance of a disc brake caliper is presented. A one-dimensional simulation model, which considers all the significant factors, including lining stiffness and hysteresis, housing stiffness, seal/groove characteristic, and stick-slide behavior between the seal and piston, is developed to capture the interactive impact of each parameter to caliper drag performance. The system model is validated with experimental measurements for caliper fluid displacement and piston retraction. A parameter study is then conducted to investigate the component interactive impact to the drag performance.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Power Devices for Automotive Hybrid and 42V Based Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1682
With the requirements for reducing the emissions and improving the fuel economy, the automotive companies are developing hybrid, 42 V and fuel cell vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, the requirements of the power semiconductor devices and the criteria for selecting the power devices for various types of low emission vehicles are presented. A comparative study of the most commonly used power devices is presented. A brief review of the future power devices that would enhance the performance of the automotive power conversion systems is also presented.
Technical Paper

Logistics and Capability Implications of a Bradley Fighting Vehicle with a Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

2004-03-08
2004-01-1586
Modern military ground vehicles are dependent not only on armor and munitions, but also on their electronic equipment. Advances in battlefield sensing, targeting, and communications devices have resulted in military vehicles with a wide array of electrical and electronic loads requiring power. These vehicles are typically designed to supply this power via a main internal combustion engine outfitted with a generator. Batteries are also incorporated to allow power to be supplied for a limited time when the engine is off. It is desirable to use a subset of the battlefield electronics in the vehicle while the engine is off, in a mode called “silent watch.” Operating time in this mode is limited, however, by battery capacity unless an auxiliary power unit (APU) is used or the main engines are restarted.
Technical Paper

Anti-Lock Braking Performance and Hydraulic Brake Pressure Estimation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1061
Anti-Lock Brake Systems use hydraulic valves to control brake pressure and ultimately, wheel slip. The difference in pressure across these hydraulic valves affects their performance. The control of these valves can be improved if the pressure difference is known and the valve control altered accordingly. In practice, the delta- pressure is estimated. Estimating the wheel brake pressure introduces an error into the control structure of the system, i.e. the difference between the actual wheel brake pressure and the estimated wheel brake pressure. The effect of this error was investigated at the vehicle level via simulation, using stopping distance and vehicle yaw rate as evaluation criteria. Even with large errors in the brake pressure estimate, it was found that the vehicle performance was largely unaffected.
Technical Paper

Effects of Brake Actuator Error on Vehicle Dynamics and Stability

2005-04-11
2005-01-1578
In this paper the effects of rear brake imprecision on vehicle braking performance and yaw dynamics are investigated for a vehicle with individually controlled brake actuators. The effects of side to side brake force imbalance on vehicle yaw rate and path deviation during straight line braking and in braking in turn maneuvers are examined through analysis, simulations and vehicle testing. These effects are compared to the influences of disturbances encountered during normal driving such as side winds and bank angles of the road. The loss of brake efficiency due to imprecision in generating actuating force is evaluated for different types of vehicles and different levels of vehicle deceleration. Requirements regarding path deviation during straight line braking and braking efficiency on low friction surfaces were found to lead to the most stringent specifications for actuator accuracy in realizing the desired braking forces.
Technical Paper

Overview of Remote Diagnosis and Maintenance for Automotive Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1428
Advances in wireless communications, model-based diagnostics, human-machine interfaces, electronics and embedded system technologies have created the foundation for a dramatic shift in the way the vehicles are diagnosed and maintained. These advances will enable vehicle diagnosis and maintenance to be performed remotely while the vehicle is being driven. There also has been recent strong consumer interest in Remote Diagnosis and Maintenance (RD&M). As a consequence, RD&M is drawing increased attention in the automotive industry. This paper provides the current status of vehicle remote diagnosis and maintenance, analyses the potential features of RD&M and their significance, and discusses how next generation automotive products could benefit from research and development in this area.
Technical Paper

New On-Board Power Generation Technologies for Automotive Auxiliary Power Units

2003-06-23
2003-01-2256
Improving fuel economy, emissions, passenger comfort and convenience, safety, and vehicle performance in the automobile is resulting in the growth of electrical loads. In order to meet these electrical load demands and to meet the requirement of power generation when the engine is off, several technologies are on the horizon for on-board power generation in the vehicles. In this paper, new on-board power generation technologies based on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) system, and diamond or carbon nanostructures are compared in terms power density, cost, and long term feasibility for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Production Applications of Hybrid Electric Powertrains

2003-06-23
2003-01-2307
In this paper, a comparative study of the production applications of hybrid electric powertrains is presented. Vehicles studied include the Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, Toyota Estima, Toyota Crown, Honda Civic Hybrid, and Nissan Tino. The upcoming Ford Escape Hybrid and General Motors Parallel Hybrid Truck (PHT) will also be included, although advance information is limited. The goal of this paper is to look at what hybrid drivetrain architectures have actually been selected for production and what are the underlying details of these drivetrains. Since hybridizing a powertrain involves significant changes, the powertrain architectures are presented in diagram form, with analysis as to the similarities and advantages represented in these architectures. The specific hybrid functions used to save fuel are discussed. Peak power-to-weight ratio and degree of hybridization are plotted for the vehicles. System voltage versus electric power level are also plotted and analyzed.
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