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Technical Paper

Damping loss factor prediction in statistical energy analysis for co-generation system enclosure

2009-11-03
2009-32-0128
This paper describes damping loss factor prediction in statistical energy analysis (SEA) for co-generation system (CGS) enclosures. To accurately predict vibration and noise by SEA, it is important to estimate parameters called the damping and coupling loss factors. In this study, the damping loss factors were estimated by the decay ratio method and a technique for calculating the modal damping ratio that uses a multi-degree of freedom curve fit. The calculated loss factor was applied to the vibration prediction of the co-generation system, and the influence of the internal loss factor calculation method on prediction accuracy was verified.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Feeling of Pulse for Cruiser-type Motorcycle

2009-11-03
2009-32-0131
This paper describes the relationship between the rider's evaluation of feeling of pulse and the seat vibration of the cruiser-type motorcycle. A simulated running condition was created to measure the seat vibration and engine speed. Next, the seat vibration was reproduced on the hydrodynamic shaker. Finally, we examined the influence of which order of rotational speed effects evaluation of feeling of pulse in a forced vibration test. As a result, it is known that 0.5th and 1st orders of seat vibration contribute to evaluation of feeling of pulse near 1,500 to 2,000 rpm of engine rotation.
Journal Article

Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray

2012-10-23
2012-32-0031
Ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel spray were examined for ranges of injection timing and intake-air oxygen concentration. Fuels used were binary mixtures of gasoline-like component i-octane (cetane number 12, boiling point 372 K) and diesel fuel-like component n-tridecane (cetane number 88, boiling point 510 K). Mass fraction of i-octane was also changed as the experimental variable. The experimental study was carried out in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and an exhaust gas recirculation system. The results demonstrated that the increase of the i-octane mass fraction with optimizations of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration reduced pressure rise rate and soot and NOx emissions without deterioration of indicated thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

Modeling of Auto-Ignition and Combustion Processes for Dual-Component Fuel Spray

2011-09-11
2011-24-0001
Auto-ignition and combustion processes of dual-component fuel spray were numerically studied. A source code of SUPERTRAPP (developed by NIST), which is capable of predicting thermodynamic and transportation properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components, was incorporated into KIVA3V to provide physical fuel properties and vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations. Low temperature oxidation reaction, which is of importance in ignition process of hydrocarbon fuels, as well as negative temperature coefficient behavior was taken into account using the multistep kinetics ignition prediction based on Shell model, while a global single-step mechanism was employed to account for high temperature oxidation reaction. Computational results with the present multi-component fuel model were validated by comparing with experimental data of spray combustion obtained in a constant volume vessel.
Technical Paper

The Power Performance and the Fuel Economy Estimation of HV for Vehicle Concept Planning Using VHDL-AMS Full Vehicle Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-1025
In order to reduce CO₂, Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Vehicles (HV) are effective. Those types of vehicles have powertrains from conventional vehicles. Those new powertrains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicles keeping the same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have an issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large, and seriously affects the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, we propose VHDL-AMS multi-domain simulation technique for the estimation of the vehicle performance at the concept planning stage. The VHDL-AMS is IEEE and IEC standardized language, which supports not only multi-domain (physics) but also encryption. The common modeling language and encryption standard is indispensable for full-vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics of a Mount Combining Viscous Fluid With Air-Spring

2007-05-15
2007-01-2360
A hydraulic excavator cab is mounted on a viscous mount. When the weight of the cab is heavy, the neutral position is depressed. Besides, at a large load, the cab receives compressive repulsion power of oil thereby restricting its damping ability. In addition, it is difficult to obtain an arbitrary damping performance separately. To overcome these problems, which combines the shear force due to viscous fluid with elastic force due to air-spring a mount, was invented. The neutral position of composite mount is adjustable by air-spring according to the weight. And viscous oil is not sealed up. So, viscous oil can flow at a large load. Therefore, it may not experience the repulsion force of oil in spite of a large load. Moreover, the generated elastic force is adjustable according to change of pressure in the air spring, and the generated damping force is adjustable according to change of viscous fluid's viscosity or volume.
Technical Paper

Effect of Operational Condition on PM in Exhausted Gas through CI Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4077
The particulate matters (PM) containing in the exhaust gas through a CI engine affects strongly the human health. Thus, it is very significant to measure the mechanism of PM itself generation for actualization of a clean CI engine. On the standpoint mentioned above, the authors carried out the experiments of the characteristics of PM generated from a small high speed DI CI engine with a single cylinder. The variables were the equivalence ratio, the injection timing, the EGR rate and the sort of fuel. As a result, the effect of experimental condition on the distribution of PM is clear through experiments.
Technical Paper

Mode Classification Analysis using Mutual Relationship between Dynamics of Automobile Whole-Body and Components

2007-08-05
2007-01-3500
Current simulation of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) often uses a large DOF and detailed finite element model along with improvement of CAE technology and computational performance. By using a detailed model, predictions of precise vibration characteristics become possible. However, the number of eigenmodes in the target frequency range increases and engineers require a lot of time to examine eigenmodes and establish countermeasures. In this paper, a practical method of efficient and effective analysis by classifying target eigenmodes into a small number of groups is proposed. The classification is executed based on the relation between the dynamic characteristics of the entire automotive body structure and substructures.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Transient Spray of Fuel with Multiple Components

2005-10-24
2005-01-3846
Almost all the researches relating to the characteristics of transient spray have carried out by using the fuel with only single component. However, the actual fuel oil supplying to a reciprocating engine has multiple components. Thus, this paper describes the experimental results on the characteristics of a transient spray formed by the mixed fuel with three kinds of pure fuel. The state of periphery of non evaporating spray near the nozzle outlet was arranged by the dimensionless number. And the technique of laser Induced fluorescence (LIF) was applied to an evaporating spray to find the state of mixing.
Technical Paper

Soot Generation in Spray of Oxygenated Fuel

2006-10-16
2006-01-3371
One of the effective ways to cope with the very severe future regulation of soot exhausted through a CI engine is the use of oxygenated fuel. This paper describes the experimental results of the soot generation of six kinds of oxygenated fuel and n-heptane whose cetane number is the almost the same as that of the gas oil by means of time resolved LII (TIRE-LII) and the classical two color method. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume chamber. The main result is that the oxygen content of the fuel is the much significant factor to decrease in the soot.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Crack Initiation for One-Piece Type Brake Disc for Motorcycles under Overload Condition

2005-10-12
2005-32-0047
A prediction method was proposed for crack initiation in one-piece type brake discs under extreme braking conditions. Braking tests under extreme loading conditions were conducted by using sample discs. The variations of internal temperatures and surface strains at several locations were measured by using thermocouples and strain gages. In order to obtain the S-N curve of the disc material, specimens with a hole in their center were used for the fatigue test in which an alternative strain was cyclically applied. The numbers of strain cycles, when a 0.3mm crack initiated from the hole, were analyzed by the Weibull plot. The maximum and minimum strains at the hole edge were estimated by calculation considering the temperature variation with respect to time as well as the strain induced by friction due to braking pads. The number of cycles corresponding to the strain amplitude range was estimated by the rain-flow method.
Technical Paper

Rolling Tire Vibration Caused by Road Roughness

2005-05-16
2005-01-2524
To reduce tire/road noise, it is important to examine the noise generation mechanism. Noise generated by a rolling tire is mainly emitted from the tread block. However, it has recently been reported that smooth tires also generate noise recently. This paper remarks on a smooth tire vibration by rolling on the road. The vibration of a rolling smooth tire is mainly vibration excited from the road surface. It is difficult to measure the input from the road surface, so we measured the tire's vibration at the leading and trailing edges. Scan Laser Doppler Vibrometers were employed to measure the vibration of the tire tread.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Spindle Force Using Measured Road Forces on Rolling Tire

2009-05-19
2009-01-2107
Improvement of vehicle interior noise is desired in recent years in the modern world of the demand of low weight, good fuel economy and offering technical advantages strongly. The dynamic force transmission of rolling tires from the road surface to the spindles is a critical factor in vehicle interior noise. We focus on structure-borne noise transferred through the spindle. It is necessary for effort of the effective tire/road noise reduction to predict spindle force excited by tire/road contact. The major issues in predicting spindle forces are to clarify the distribution of road forces and how to input on the simulation model. Therefore, it is important that road forces are measured accurately on the rolling tire. First, the dynamic road forces on the rolling tire are measured by using the tri-axial force sensor directly. In efforts to reduce interior noise due to structure-borne noise, it is necessary to predict spindle forces excited by the tire/road contact.
Technical Paper

A Measures Planning Method by Analysis of Contribution of the Vibration Transfer Path

2009-05-19
2009-01-2197
This paper describes a proposal of techniques on Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) to analyze transmission of vibration among the components in a complex structure. This proposal is evolved from the previous one [1] in the dimension which dominates the quality of the analysis in automotive body structure by TPA. The proper coordinate transformation was introduced to resolve the troublesome process on the application of the body structure in the previous proposal. The complications are caused by the treatment with a lot of transfer functions and transmitted forces at the conjunctions that are complexly assembled with many adjacent nodes. Dimension of the analytical region is expanded from two to three in this study. That is, from the cross section of interface of components to the structure itself where the vibration transmits between two components.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Brake Torque Variation of Wave Type Brake Disc for Motorcycles

2009-10-11
2009-01-3023
The purpose of this study is to characterize the brake torque variation (BTV) of the developed brake system using wave type brake disc. The brake torque was fluctuated when the pad passed at the point of the wavy shape. The indentation of the pad into the space of wavy shape was observed. These results indicate that remarkable peak of the BTV of the wave type brake disc was related with the pad deformation. In the devised test, remarkable peak of the BTV of the wave type brake disc was decreased by insertion of spacers. This paper proposed an effective aspect to prevent the BTV of the wave type brake disc.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Steer Control on Motorcycle between Rider and Active Support Torque

2009-11-03
2009-32-0060
In this research, we aim at the construction of a steering cooperation-type front-wheel steering control system to reduce the rider's steering load by stabilizing the behavior of the motorcycle when turbulence in the direction of a roll occurs during low-speed driving. Finally, a front-wheel steering control system that considers cooperation with a rider's steering based on the experimental result is constructed, and the utility is verified by simulation.
Technical Paper

Study on Low Speed Judder of Wave Type Brake Discs for Motorcycles

2006-11-13
2006-32-0026
This study discussed the mechanism of the low speed judder for wave type brake disc developed newly for recent motorcycles. Wavy disc was examined to investigate the effect of wave configurations on the BTV (Brake Torque Variation) behavior. Torque amplitude in braking was compared with respect to the revolution order which represented the multiple number of the number of revolutions. To explain the mechanism at the mode showing largest BTV, the elastic deformation of the pad was analyzed by finite element method concerning geometrical nonlinearity with commercial code. This study found that most crucial BTV appeared on low speed judder was observed at the 3 rd peaks on the revolution order. Test data showed that this crucial BTV was related with the number of waves at the disc periphery, and caused by the indentation of the pad into notched part at disc periphery.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Diesel Spray Combustion with Eddy-Dissipation Model and CIP Method by Use of KIVALES

2007-04-16
2007-01-0247
Three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) has been conducted for a diesel spray flame using KIVALES which is LES version of KIVA code. Modified TAB model, velocity interpolation model and rigid sphere model are used to improve the prediction of the fuel-mixture process in the diesel spray. Combustion is simulated using the Eddy-Dissipation model. CIP method was incorporated into the KIVALES in order to suppress the numerical instability on the combustible flow. The formation of soot and NO was simulated using Hiroyasu model and KIVA original model. Three different grid resolutions were used to examine the grid dependency. The result shows that the LES approach with 0.5 mm grid size is able to resolve the instantaneous spray with the intermittency in the spray periphery, the axi-symmetric shape and meandering flow after the end of injection as shown in the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Auto-Ignition and Combustion of Unsteady Synthetic Gas Jet

2007-04-16
2007-01-0629
It is thought that the synthetic gas, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has a potential to be an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines, because a heating value of the synthetic gas is higher than one of hydrogen or natural gas. A purpose of this study is to acquire stable auto-ignition and combustion of the synthetic gas which is supposed to be applied into a direct-injection compression ignition engine. In this study, the effects of ambient gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations on auto-ignition characteristics of the synthetic gas with changing percentage of hydrogen (H2) or carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the synthetic gas. An electronically-controlled, hydraulically-actuated gas injector was used to control a precise injection timing and period of gaseous fuels, and the experiments were conducted in an optically accessible, constant-volume combustion chamber under simulated quiescent diesel engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on Soot Behavior in Diesel Flame

2005-09-11
2005-24-007
This paper describes the soot behavior in a diesel flame. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume chamber with quiescent atmosphere. Parameters were the ambient temperature and the oxygen concentration. The integrated image of flame was taken, the natural emission of flame was detected and the KL factor was found by means of classical technique of laser light extinction. The results were discussed by use of the apparent rate of heat release. As a result, the ignition delay and the vortex with large scale generated in a diesel spray affect the soot behavior in a diesel flame.
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